Researchers at the University of California, Riverside, are part ofan ambitious planat the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA, to eliminate animal testing by 2035. Their contribution: developing a way to test whether chemicals cause musculoskeletal birth defects using lab-grown human tissue, not live animals.
Nicole zur Nieden, an associate professor of molecular, cell, and systems biology, andDavid Volz, an associate professor of environmental toxicology, are both experts on alternatives to regulatory toxicity testing and chemicals policy and regulation. They received $849,811 to grow human stem cells into bone-like tissue to test industrial and environmental chemicals that might interfere with fetal growth.
Birth defects that affect musculoskeletal tissues can be caused by chemical ingredients in pesticides, fungicides, paints, and food additives. Harmful chemicals must be identified through testing in order to be regulated. Currently, this testing is done on live animals, usually rodents such as mice.
The UC Riverside project, led by zur Nieden, will stimulate human pluripotent stem cells, which have the capacity to develop into any sort of cell, with agents that direct them to form bone cells. The cells will pass through the same developmental stages and be subject to the same molecular cues as in a human embryo. The researchers will expose the cells to selected chemicals at critical junctures, then assess them using advanced imaging and next-generation sequencing techniques.
Bone cells can develop through three different pathways. zur Nieden will use chemicals known to affect specific routes of bone development to look for patterns in how the chemicals affect these origins. The patterns will serve as blueprints for testing unknown chemicals. Next, the researchers will test unknown chemicals and compare them to previously compiled libraries of compounds that have already been tested in animals to see how accurate the petri dish, or in vitro, tests are for assessing risk.
A hallmark feature of bone-forming cells is that they make a bony matrix out of little crystals called hydroxyapatite, which eventually form calcium phosphate, the white stuff on the surface of all bones. Cost-saving visual analysis can help identify defects in calcium.
Calcium crystals appear white when viewed with your eyes, said zur Nieden. But when you view the cultures using phase contrast microscopy, it inverts the light so the normal crystals appear black. Abnormal crystals will have more white and shades of gray. You can use an image analysis algorithm to measure the blackness in images to determine if the calcium has formed correctly or not.
Scientists have known for a long time that animals differ from humans in important developmental and physiological ways, and that animal test results are not always reliable for people. Moreover, animal research is expensive and time-consuming, as well as increasingly untenable for ethical reasons. Non-animal alternatives have been in development for nearly 25 years, and some are already standard.
To the general public, the EPAs announcement seemed to come out of nowhere, said Volz, whose lab will sequence messenger RNA in chemical-exposed bone cells from zur Niedens lab to look for changes in gene expression. It didnt happen overnight. That train has already left the station.
Volz said the EPAs Science to Achieve Results Program, through which UC Riverside received the new grant, has been funding research on animal alternatives for more than 10 years.
The EPAs plan to end animal testing by 2035 follows up on earlier changes to the Toxic Substances Control Act, or TSCA, enacted in 1976. TSCA authorizes the EPA to regulate chemicals found in consumer products such as cleaning agents, furniture, paint, carpeting, clothing, and other consumer goods. Regulation under TSCA does not apply to chemicals in food, drugs, cosmetics, and pesticides, which are regulated under different laws.
Even after TSCA, thousands of common chemicals used in everything from plastic to sunscreen have never been tested for safety in humans. In 2016, Congress passed the Lautenberg Chemical Safety Act, amending TSCA to close the loophole for industrial chemicals. The law mandated the EPA to evaluate existing chemicals with clear and enforceable deadlines, and to develop risk-based chemical assessments. It promoted the use of non-animal testing methods, a move sought by both industry and animal rights groups.
The new EPA plan introduces an aggressive timeline for ramping up development of non-animal tests that can accurately predict toxicity in humans. Volz said the United States lags behind some other countries around the world, which have already greatly reduced animal testing. He said he interacts with fewer and fewer students interested in research involving animal experiments, and that our culture is shifting toward a desire to reduce animal suffering.
But neither Volz nor zur Nieden are sure animal testing can ever be replaced completely, a position echoed by the EPA memo, which states that after 2035, animal tests will be approved on a case-by-case basis. Some chemicals, for example, are not directly toxic to cells but become toxic after they are metabolized in the body.
If your result is that the chemical does not interfere with a human stem cell developing in a dish, how sure can you be thats not really happening in humans? The best way we have to assess that is an animal experiment, zur Nieden said. At the same time, we want to do this in an appropriate way. We need to think about, is this really necessary? Can we look at the question some other way?
zur Nieden thinks we need a tiered system, with in vitro tests weeding out the most toxic chemicals first, and animal tests used where in vitro tests dont reveal toxicity.
If you cannot fully replace an animal test with an in vitro method, you can at least decrease suffering of the animal. If you think about a highly toxic chemical that has effects on the mom as she is exposed during pregnancy as well as on the developing embryos, if you can use an in vitro test system to find all these strong toxic chemicals, you will not need to test them in an animal, she said.
Previous versions of the test system zur Nieden will use for the new musculoskeletal research have been able to identify embryotoxic chemicals for other tissues, such as heart tissue, with almost 100 percent accuracy.
See the rest here:
Finding alternatives to animal testing - University of California
- Asia Pacific Cell Therapy Instruments Market Forecast to 2027 - Covid-19 Impact and Regional Analysis - By Product ; Cell Type ; Process ; End User,... - November 27th, 2020
- Global Animal Stem Cell Therapy Market Research Report by Size, Data, Developments, Global Demand, In-Depth Analysis and Forecast 2020 to 2025 |... - November 27th, 2020
- Europe Cell Therapy Instruments Market Forecast to 2027 - Covid-19 Impact and Regional Analysis - By Product ; Cell Type ; Process ; End User, and... - November 27th, 2020
- Scaffold Technology Market Research Report by Product, by Application, by End-User - Global Forecast to 2025 - Cumulative Impact of COVID-19 -... - November 27th, 2020
- The Thorough Analysis Of The Global Stem Cell Media market Research During COVID-19 Health Crisis - The Courier - November 27th, 2020
- Autism genes affect development of neurons and glia - Spectrum - November 27th, 2020
- Global Live Cell Imaging Market Report 2020-2025: Market Size is Projected to Reach USD 2.8 Billion by 2025 from USD 1.8 Billion in 2020 - PRNewswire - November 27th, 2020
- North America Cell Therapy Instruments Market Forecast to 2027 - COVID-19 Impact and Regional Analysis By Product ; Cell Type ; Process ; End User,... - November 27th, 2020
- Post-doctoral Fellow in Computational Stem Cell Biology job with THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG | 234737 - Times Higher Education (THE) - November 27th, 2020
- Circulating Tumor Cells and Cancer Stem Cells Market Research Report 2020 with Manufacturing Process Analysis and Market Concentration Rate till 2026... - November 27th, 2020
- Analyzing Impacts of Covid-19 on Global Cell Culture Media Market Effects, Aftermath and Forecast To 2025 - The Courier - November 27th, 2020
- Accretion: Current and Future Business Analysis in Cell Expansion Market - PharmiWeb.com - November 27th, 2020
- Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCS) Market Expected to Witness High Growth over the Forecast 2027 - Cheshire Media - November 27th, 2020
- Stem Cell Market to Witness a Pronounce Growth During (2020-2026) Cheshire Media - Cheshire Media - November 27th, 2020
- Demand with COVID-19 impact analysis on Cell Expansion Market - The Courier - November 27th, 2020
- Approval of Phase I/II Clinical Trial of ATG-016 (Eltanexor), a Second Generation Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE), in Mainland China for... - November 27th, 2020
- Researchers grow first plant-based gel to help organoid development for biomedical applications - Microbioz India - November 27th, 2020
- California's stem cell research agency looks to the future - Bond Buyer - November 25th, 2020
- Unexpected discovery about stem cell immortality study - News - The University of Sydney - November 25th, 2020
- Breakthroughs in Stem Cell Based Treatment of Heart Disease - The Connecticut College Voice - November 25th, 2020
- Mount Sinai Cardiologist Awarded $2.9 Million NIH Grant to Advance Work with Stem Cells and Heart Repair after Heart Attack - Cath Lab Digest - November 25th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Global Market Report 2020-30: Covid 19 Growth and Change - Yahoo Finance UK - November 25th, 2020
- Global Cell Harvesting Market to Reach US$381,4 Million by the Year 2027 - PRNewswire - November 25th, 2020
- Middle East & Africa Cell Therapy Instruments Market Forecast to 2027 - COVID-19 Impact and Regional Analysis By Product ; Cell Type ; Process ;... - November 25th, 2020
- Global Stem Cell Banking Market to Get Expansion admist COVID 19, Scope With Advanced Technologies Top Key Players and Forecast 2020-2027 - The... - November 25th, 2020
- New study on CRISPR: the stake of unintended consequences in embryos - BioNews - November 25th, 2020
- The Stem Cell Characterization and Analysis Tools Market to grow incomparably in the next decade - The Market Feed - November 25th, 2020
- New solution to kill coronavirus on common surfaces in seconds - University of California - November 25th, 2020
- Agricultural Equipment Market to Witness Robust Expansion Throughout the Forecast Period 2027 - re:Jerusalem - November 20th, 2020
- Animal Stem Cell Therapy Market Projected to Witness Vigorous Expansion by 2027 - re:Jerusalem - November 12th, 2020
- The Canine Stem Cell Therapy Market To Move Away From Insipidness, Reach US$ 218.2 Mn - PRnews Leader - November 12th, 2020
- Rheumatoid Arthritis Stem Cell Therapy Market to Ride on Increased Prevalence of Rheumatoid Arthritis - TMR Research Blog - November 12th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Growth Analysis 2020 By Industry Top Manufacturers, Business Opportunities, Industry Growth, Size, Gross Margin, Regional... - November 12th, 2020
- Stem Cell Media Market 2020 Industry Analysis and Trends Forecast to 2026 Thermo Fisher, CellGenix, Lonza, STEMCELL Technologies, Corning - The Think... - November 12th, 2020
- Autologous Stem Cell and Non-Stem Cell Based Therapies Market is Projected to Grow Massively in Near Future - The Daily Philadelphian - November 12th, 2020
- Global Live Cell Imaging Markets, 2020-2025 - Growing Adoption of High-Content Screening Techniques in Drug Discovery - Yahoo Finance UK - November 12th, 2020
- GLOBAL STEM CELL MARKET FORECAST 2021-2028 - GlobeNewswire - November 12th, 2020
- Flow Cytometry Market Is Expected to Generate Revenue of US$ 11.3 billion by 2030, Globally - GlobeNewswire - November 12th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 to 2025: Business Development Strategies and Top Manufacturers Analysis : Anterogen Co., Ltd. (South Korea), MEDIPOST... - November 12th, 2020
- ADC Therapeutics Reports Third Quarter 2020 Financial Results and Provides Recent Business Highlights - BioSpace - November 12th, 2020
- Stem Cell Characterization and Analysis Tool Market Size Analysis: Growth Factors, Share by Regional Production, Revenue and Regional Trends with Key... - November 12th, 2020
- Forma Therapeutics Reports Third Quarter 2020 Financial Results and Provides Business Update - Galveston County Daily News - November 12th, 2020
- Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCS) Market Expected to Witness High Growth over the Forecast 2027 - BCFocus - November 12th, 2020
- Marker Therapeutics Reports Third Quarter 2020 Operating and Financial Results - PRNewswire - November 12th, 2020
- CODA Biotherapeutics Receives Grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) of the National Institutes of Health... - November 12th, 2020
- Brain Development and Disorder Research Receives $1.5 Million NSF Boost - USC Viterbi School of Engineering - November 7th, 2020
- Many Initiatives Still Too Close to Call in California - Courthouse News Service - November 7th, 2020
- Election 2020: Californias ballot initiative system isnt working. - Vox.com - November 7th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market is estimated to be worth USD 8.5 Billion by 2030 - PRnews Leader - November 5th, 2020
- Cancer Stem Cell Therapeutics Market Outlooks 2020: Size, Cost Structures, Growth rate and Industry Analysis to 2027 - Eurowire - November 5th, 2020
- Biologics Safety Testing Market Research Report by Test Type, by Application - Global Forecast to 2025 - Cumulative Impact of COVID-19 - Yahoo Finance... - November 5th, 2020
- Global Regenerative Medicine Market (2020 to 2025) - Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast - ResearchAndMarkets.com -... - November 5th, 2020
- Stem Cell Media Market Projected to Witness Vigorous Expansion by 2027 - The Think Curiouser - November 5th, 2020
- Cell Isolation Market Research and Analysis by Expert: import/export details, Cost Structures and statistics till 2027 - KYT24 - November 5th, 2020
- MorphoSys to Present Data on Tafasitamab at the ASH Virtual Annual Meeting and Exposition - PharmiWeb.com - November 5th, 2020
- The Many Model Systems of COVID-19 - The Scientist - November 5th, 2020
- Soybean Trypsin Inhibitor Market Brief Analysis and Application, Growth by 2026 | Biological Industries, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sigma-Aldrich... - November 5th, 2020
- Cell and Tissue Culture Supplies Market Analysis with Market Size, Industry Share, trends and Forecast to 2026 - The Think Curiouser - November 5th, 2020
- Voters asked to approve $5.5 billion for stem cell research - Madison.com - November 3rd, 2020
- A Review of Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Parkinson Disease - AJMC.com Managed Markets Network - November 3rd, 2020
- 10 health and science-focused races to watch on election night - STAT - November 3rd, 2020
- Animal Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020, Global Research Analysis Report Growth at CAGR Value, Industry Share, Key Company Profiles, Type, Applications,... - November 3rd, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market To Exceed Revenues Worth US$ By The End Of 2020 2027 - Eurowire - November 3rd, 2020
- Stem Cell Banking Market Research Report 2020 By Segmentations, Key Company Profiles and Demand Forecasts to 2026 - Aerospace Journal - November 3rd, 2020
- Stem Cell Media Market Analysis And Demand With Forecast Overview To 2027 - Aerospace Journal - November 3rd, 2020
- Stem Cell Characterization and Analysis Tool Market : By Component, by Application, by Component Mode, and By Region Global Forecast up to 2026 -... - November 3rd, 2020
- Impact of COVID-19 on Plant Stem Cell For Cosmetics Market Overview with Detailed Analysis, Competitive Landscape & Forecast To 2026 - Eurowire - November 3rd, 2020
- 2020 Election Tracker: All The State Ballot Healthcare Initiatives - Forbes - November 3rd, 2020
- California Proposition 14 is about pikuach nefesh heres why - Forward - November 3rd, 2020
- Retinal Disorders Treatment Market: Advancements in Gene-therapy and Stem-cell Therapy to Bolster Market Growth - BioSpace - November 3rd, 2020
- Stem Cell Alopecia Treatment Market Insights and Development Trends from 2020-2027 - Aerospace Journal - November 3rd, 2020
- Global Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 Research on Import-Export Details, Business Standards and Forecast to 2025 - PRnews Leader - November 3rd, 2020
- Canine Stem Cell Therapy Market Shows Expected Trend to Guide from 2020-2026 with Growth Analysis by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application -... - November 3rd, 2020
- Survival Benefit of GVHD in MDS Is Limited to Specific Patient Subgroup - Cancer Therapy Advisor - November 3rd, 2020
- Orchard Therapeutics Reviews Recent Portfolio Progress and Reports Third Quarter 2020 Financial Results - GlobeNewswire - November 3rd, 2020
- Meat-Tech 3D Ltd. Announces Successful $7 Million Funding Round led by Psagot Provident Funds and other leading institutional investors - PRNewswire - November 3rd, 2020
- Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplantation (HSCT) Market Size 2020 Global Industry Trends, Future Growth, Regional Overview, Market Share, Revenue, and... - November 3rd, 2020
- Stem Cell Assay 2020 GLOBAL OUTLOOK, RESEARCH, TRENDS AND FORECAST TO 2025 - The Think Curiouser - November 3rd, 2020
- Cell Isolation Market report delivering growth analysis with key trends top companies and forecast 2027 - KYT24 - November 3rd, 2020
- Cancer Stem Cells Market 2020 By Business Opportunity, Innovations, Applications, Upcoming-Trends, Growth-Analysis, Demand-Insight, Segmentation,... - November 3rd, 2020