Category Archives: Adult Stem Cells

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Market Witnesses Upward Trend with High Prevalence of Parkinson’s Disease The Manomet Current – The Manomet Current

In the last few years, many researchers have discovered that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold the key to treating many serious diseases such as diabetes, Parkinsons disease, and multiple sclerosis. According to the study, Prevalence of Parkinsons disease (PD) across North America, published in July 2018 in the journal Nature, the number of people suffering from PD is expected to reach 930,000 in 2020 and 1,238,000 in 2030. Thus, high prevalence of such diseases is also expected to aid in growth of the mesenchymal stem cells market.

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While no one yet knows exactly how the cells work, scientists are excited about the potential benefits of using MSCs as treatment modalities. In particular, the discovery that stem cells can differentiate into other cell types has implications for the field of regenerative medicine. The potential of MSCs to provide treatments for age-related diseases is exciting. Thus, increasing geriatric population is also expected to aid in growth of the mesenchymal stem cells market.

While stem cells from adults hold the most promise for use in treating human illnesses, the discovery that adult stem cells can be directed to treat specific diseases has provided doctors with a new approach to the treatment of patients with life-threatening diseases, which in turn is expected to aid in growth of the mesenchymal stem cells market. Mesenchymal stem cells are found in the bone marrow in rich supply. Because the cells are continually being used to make blood, tissue, and organs, they are not only rich in blood, they are also rich in antigens. This allows adult stem cells to directly apply their healing properties to a host of diseases.

Adult MSCs have the potential to replace diseased or otherwise damaged adult stem cells in a variety of tissues throughout the body, including muscle, bones, and organs. Various researches have revealed exciting potential in using these cells to treat a range of debilitating diseases. For example, since MSCs can be directed to the myeloid tissues of the bone marrow, they can help to repair and regenerate tissue and organs that are injured or became infected. These studies are currently underway and have the potential to provide a major breakthrough in the treatment of many serious diseases, boosting growth of the mesenchymal stem cells market.

MSCs are also being tested to directly apply to a patients spinal cord to promote regrowth of bones and other skeletal tissues. This is done through the introduction of specialized cells into the spinal cord. Since the specialized cells that are made in the laboratory from MSCs can be directed to a number of myeloid tissues, they can provide a direct means of repairing and regenerating spinal cord injury, spinal stenosis, cervical spondylosis, spinal arthritis, etc. The long term effects of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on the spinal cord are not yet known but the studies so far are very promising and the technology could very soon be available for clinical trials.

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Major Key Players Are: Pluristem Therapeutics, LonzaThermo, Fisher, ATCC, Bio-Techne, MilliporeSigma, Genlantis, Celprogen, Cell Applications, PromoCell GmbH, Cyagen Biosciences, Human Longevity Inc., Axol Bioscience, Cytori Therapeutics, Eutilex Co.Ltd., ID Pharma Co. Ltd., BrainStrom Cell Therapeutics, Cytori Therapeutics Inc., Neovii Biotech, Angel Biotechnology, California Stem Cell Inc., Stemcelltechnologies Inc., and Celgene Corporation Inc.

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Market Witnesses Upward Trend with High Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease The Manomet Current - The Manomet Current

Transplant After CD19 CAR T-Cell Therapy Shows Durable Disease Control in Children, Young Adults With B-ALL – Cancer Network

In a long-term follow-up of an early-phase trial examining CD19.28 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, the use of consolidative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) was associated with long-term and durable disease control in children and young adults with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).

These results were based on a cohort of 20 patients who were initially treated in a dose-escalation part of a phase 1 trial (NCT01593696) examining anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy in patients between 1 and 30 years who have not responded to standard treatment, plus an additional 30 patients who were treated in an expansion portion. The median follow-up for all patients examined was 4.8 years and represents the longest time period examined for the use of this therapy in children and young adults with B-ALL.

We demonstrate that CD19.28 CAR T cells followed by a consolidative alloHSCT can provide long-term durable disease control in [child and young adult patients] with relapsed or refractory B-ALL, wrote the study investigators who were led by Nirali N. Shah, MD. Following alloHSCT, we observed a significant long-term [event-free survival (EFS)] with an apparent plateau and a low relapse rate, providing support for this sequential approach for long-term cure.

The complete response rate (CR) was 62.0%, with 28 of the 31 patients achieving this end point also reaching minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity by flow cytometry. The rate of CR was higher in patients with primary refractory disease (P = .0035), fewer prior lines of therapy (P = .033), and an M1 marrow (P = .0007). Additionally, CR rates were better for patients who received fludarabine/cyclophosphamidebased lymphodepletion versus other regimens, at 69% and 25%, respectively (P = .041).

The median overall survival (OS) for the cohort was 10.5 months (95% CI, 6.3-29.2 months). The median EFS was 3.1 months (95% CI, 0.9-7.7), with rates at 3 and 6 months of 52.0% (95% CI, 37.4%-64.7%) and 38.0% (95% CI, 24.8%-51.1%), respectively. Notably, median EFS was not reached in patients treated with M1 marrow versus 0.9 months in those with M2 marrow (P .0001).

Of the patients achieving MRD-negative CR (n = 28), 21 (75.0%) went on to receive consolidative alloHSCT, with a median time to transplant of 54 days from infusion (range, 42-97). The median OS from transplant day 0 was 70.2 months (95% CI, 10.4 months-not estimable) and the median EFS was not reached. The rate of EFS at 5 years was 61.9% (95% CI, 38.1%-78.8%). There were 8 deaths between 0.8 and 71 months following alloHSCT, which included transplant-related complications and/or graft-versus-host disease or infection in 6 patients and 1 patient with a complication of secondary malignancy at 3 years post-transplant. Teo patients relapsed after alloHSCT, with a cumulative risk of relapse was 4.8% (95% CI, 0.3-20.3) and 9.5% (95% CI, 1.5%-26.8%) at 12 and 24 months, respectively, with death as a competing risk.

Of note, achieving a CR was associated with greater CAR T-cell expansion and grade 3/4 cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Overall, CRS occurred in 70.0% of patients, with 9 (18.0%) having a grade 3/4 event. Neurotoxicity occurred in 10 patients (20.0%), with 4 having severe neurotoxicity.

Central nervous system involvement was effectively treated with CAR T-cell therapy all patients with a marrow response and CRS, although 1 patients did have residual disease by flow cytometry at low levels.

The authors noted that given these findings, CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy may be considered as a bridge to alloHSCT versus standard-of-care blinatumomab (Blincyto).

Despite its more ready availability, which is not dependent on manufacturing time or success thereof, the efficacy of blinatumomab in children is lower than in adults receiving blinatumomab and also lower than remission rates following CD19-CAR T cells, using any construct, particularly for those with high-burden disease, the study author wrote. Therefore, selection of CAR T cells over blinatumomab may be advantageous in patients with higher-burden disease and [extramedullary] disease or as a salvage for blinatumomab nonresponders.

References

Shah NN, Lee DW, Yates B, et al. Long-Term Follow-Up of CD19-CAR T-Cell Therapy in Children and Young Adults With B-ALL. J Clin Oncol. March 25, 2021. doi: 10.1200/JCO.20.02262

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Transplant After CD19 CAR T-Cell Therapy Shows Durable Disease Control in Children, Young Adults With B-ALL - Cancer Network

BioRestorative Therapies Announces Notice of Allowance for a New Patent Application Related to its Off-the-Shelf ThermoStem Program -…

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MELVILLE, N.Y., March 31, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- BioRestorative Therapies, Inc. (the Company) (OTC: BRTX), a life sciences company focused on stem cell-based therapies, today announced that the United States Patent Office has issued a notice of allowance for a patent application related to the Companys metabolic ThermoStem Program. The notice of allowance was issued on March 22, 2021 and is related to a new patent application not previously announced.

Claims granted under the new patent cover methodologies related to generating exosomes and brown adipocytes from human brown adipose-derived stem cells. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles produced by cells that contain lipids, messenger-RNA, micro-RNA, cytokines and proteins. Therapeutic benefits of using exosomes have been demonstrated in various disease models and may provide a valuable therapeutic tool for treating disease.

We are pleased to see that we have been granted an additional patent by the USPTO for our ThermoStem Program, said Lance Alstodt, the Companys CEO. Our comprehensive portfolio of patents under our ThermoStem Program continues to expand as we develop and protect intellectual property related to large and growing markets where brown adipocyte therapeutics can be applied. Im very proud of our team, driving towards the achievement of our stated goals. The advancement of our technology is a core, fundamental value driver of our Company. Our family of intellectual property coupled with our financial reporting progress are critical factors contributing to our growth strategy.

It is expected that the exosome diagnostic and therapeutic market will reach $368 million by 2022 as the development of research, clinical tools and therapeutics continues to grow in this emerging technology.

About BioRestorative Therapies, Inc.

BioRestorative Therapies, Inc. (www.biorestorative.com) develops therapeutic products using cell and tissue protocols, primarily involving adult stem cells. Our two core programs, as described below, relate to the treatment of disc/spine disease and metabolic disorders:

Disc/Spine Program (brtxDISC): Our lead cell therapy candidate, BRTX-100, is a product formulated from autologous (or a persons own) cultured mesenchymal stem cells collected from the patients bone marrow. We intend that the product will be used for the non-surgical treatment of painful lumbosacral disc disorders or as a complementary therapeutic to a surgical procedure. The BRTX-100 production process utilizes proprietary technology and involves collecting a patients bone marrow, isolating and culturing stem cells from the bone marrow and cryopreserving the cells. In an outpatient procedure, BRTX-100 is to be injected by a physician into the patients damaged disc. The treatment is intended for patients whose pain has not been alleviated by non-invasive procedures and who potentially face the prospect of surgery. We have received authorization from the Food and Drug Administration to commence a Phase 2 clinical trial using BRTX-100 to treat chronic lower back pain arising from degenerative disc disease.

Metabolic Program (ThermoStem): We are developing a cell-based therapy candidate to target obesity and metabolic disorders using brown adipose (fat) derived stem cells to generate brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT is intended to mimic naturally occurring brown adipose depots that regulate metabolic homeostasis in humans. Initial preclinical research indicates that increased amounts of brown fat in animals may be responsible for additional caloric burning as well as reduced glucose and lipid levels. Researchers have found that people with higher levels of brown fat may have a reduced risk for obesity and diabetes.

Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and such forward-looking statements are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You are cautioned that such statements are subject to a multitude of risks and uncertainties that could cause future circumstances, events or results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors and other risks, including, without limitation, those set forth in the Company's latest Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. You should consider these factors in evaluating the forward-looking statements included herein, and not place undue reliance on such statements. The forward-looking statements in this release are made as of the date hereof and the Company undertakes no obligation to update such statements.

CONTACT:Email: ir@biorestorative.com

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Stem Cell Assay Market Changing Dynamics Of Competition With Forecast To 2030 The Bisouv Network – The Bisouv Network

Market Industry Reports (MIR) has published a new report titled Stem Cell Assay Market Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast, 20192030. According to the report the global stem cell assay market was valued at over US$ 450.0 Mn. in 2017 and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 19.9% from 2019 to 2030.

The updated study released on Stem Cell Assay Market by Market Industry Reports is an ideal representation of all the ongoing happenings and activities in the market to help the manufacturers and the market player in planning crucial profitable strategies for the forecast period 2020 2030. The statistical research report presents recent industry insights, product analysis, historical data, and current information for offering a better market picture to the market players. Industry players can hence plan effective strategies for future and lead the market substantially. With higher profitability, market players can penetrate deeply in the Stem Cell Assay Market and ultimately emerge by implementing right strategies.

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Some of the prominent players in the Stem Cell Assay Market include:

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Promega Corporation, STEMCELL Technologies Inc., Merck KGaA, GE Healthcare, Bio-Techne Corporation, Hemogenix, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Cellular Dynamics International Inc., and Cell Biolabs Inc.

Increasing global burden of diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and others are projected to be the major factors leading to the market growth. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2017, number of patients suffering from type I and type II diabetes was estimated to be over 422 million. Moreover, the disease is expected to be the seventh largest cause of death by 2030.

According to American Cancer Society, in 2017, there were over 1.6 million new cancer cases in the U.S. Hence, there exists a need for developing new treatment methods which have led to the rise in approvals of clinical trials for the stem cell based therapies.

The Stem Cell Assay Market is segmented on the basis of Product, Modality, Cancer Type, End-Users and region.

by Product & Service (Instruments, Kits) Cell Type(Adult Stem Cells, Human Embryonic Stem Cells), Application (Regenerative Medicine, Drug Discovery, Clinical Research), Type (Cell Identification, Viability, Proliferation Assay)

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The Research Report aims to resolve the following questions related to the Stem Cell Assay Market

Table of Contents

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We continue to pioneer state-of-the-art approach in research & analysis that makes complex world simpler to stay ahead of the curve. By nurturing the perception of genius and optimized market intelligence we bring proficient contingency to our clients in the evolving world of technologies, megatrends and industry convergence. We empower and inspire Vanguards to fuel and shape their business to build and grow world-class consumer products.

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Stem Cell Assay Market Changing Dynamics Of Competition With Forecast To 2030 The Bisouv Network - The Bisouv Network

Stem Cell Therapy Market Research Reveals Enhanced Growth During The Forecast Period 2017 2025 FLA News – FLA News

Stem cells are found in all human beings, from the initial stages of human growth to the end of life. All stem cells are beneficial for medical research; however, each of the different kinds of stem cells has both limitations and promise. Embryonic stem cells that can be obtained from a very initial stage in human development have the prospect to develop all of the cell types in the human body. Adult stem cells are found in definite tissues in fully developed humans. Stem cells are basic cells of all multicellular animals having the ability to differentiate into a wide range of adult cells. Totipotency and self-renewal are characteristics of stem cells. However, totipotency is seen in very early embryonic stem cells. The adult stem cells owes multipotency and difference flexibility which can be exploited for next generation therapeutic options. Recently, scientists have also recognized stem cells in the placenta and umbilical cord blood that can give rise to several types of blood cells. Research for stem cells is being undertaken with the expectation of achieving major medical inventions. Scientists are attempting to develop therapies that replace or rebuild spoiled cells with the tissues generated from stem cells and offer hope to people suffering from diabetes, cancer, spinal-cord injuries, cardiovascular disease, and many other disorders.

The stem cell therapy market is segmented on the basis of type, therapeutic applications, cell source, and geography. On the basis of type, the stem cell therapy market is categorized into allogeneic stem cell therapy and autologous stem cell therapy. Allogeneic stem cell therapy includes transferring the stem cells from a healthy person (the donor) to the patients body through high-intensity radiation or chemotherapy. Allogeneic stem cell therapy is used to treat patients who do not respond fully to treatment, who have high risk of relapse, and relapse after prior successful treatment. Autologous stem cell therapy is a type of therapy that uses the persons own stem cells. These type of cells are collected earlier and returned in future. The use of stem cells is done to replace damaged cells by high doses of chemotherapy, and to treat the persons underlying disease. On the basis of therapeutic applications, the stem cell therapy market is segmented into cardiovascular diseases, wounds and injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, surgeries, neurodegenerative disorders, and others. On the basis of cell source, stem cells therapy is segmented into bone marrow-derived mesenchyme stem cells, adipose tissue-derived mesenchyme stem cells, and cord blood or embryonic stem cells

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By geography, the market for stem cell therapy is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America leads the stem cell therapy market owing to rising awareness among people, early treatment adoption, and new product innovations. Europe is the second leading market for stem cell therapy due to development and expansion of more efficient and advanced technologies. The Asia Pacific stem cell therapy market is also anticipated to grow at an increasing rate owing to increasing healthcare spending, adoption of western lifestyles, and growth in research and development. Asia Pacific is the fastest growing region for stem cell therapy as several players have invested in the development of new stem cell technologies. These factors are expected to drive the growth of the stem cell therapy market globally during the forecast period.

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The major player in the stem cell therapy market are Regenexx, Takara Bio Company, Genea Biocells, PromoCell GmbH, CellGenix GmbH, Cellular Engineering Technologies, BIOTIME, INC., Astellas Pharma US, Inc., AlloSource, RTI Surgical, Inc., NuVasive, Inc., JCR Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Holostem Terapie Avanzate S.r.l., PHARMICELL Co., Ltd, ANTEROGEN.CO., LTD., The Future of Biotechnology, and Osiris Therapeutics, Inc. Rising demand for advanced stem cell therapies will increase the competition between players in the stem cell therapy market.

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Stem Cell Therapy Market Research Reveals Enhanced Growth During The Forecast Period 2017 2025 FLA News - FLA News

Adult Stem Cells Market Size, Share, Global Industry Overview, Challenges, Business Overview and Forecast Research Study 2024 (Effect of the COVID-19…

Overview for Adult Stem Cells Market Helps in providing scope and definitions, Key Findings, Growth Drivers, and Various Dynamics.

The global Adult Stem Cells market focuses on encompassing major statistical evidence for the Adult Stem Cells industry as it offers our readers a value addition on guiding them in encountering the obstacles surrounding the market. A comprehensive addition of several factors such as global distribution, manufacturers, market size, and market factors that affect the global contributions are reported in the study. In addition the Adult Stem Cells study also shifts its attention with an in-depth competitive landscape, defined growth opportunities, market share coupled with product type and applications, key companies responsible for the production, and utilized strategies are also marked.

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This intelligence and 2026 forecasts Adult Stem Cells industry report further exhibits a pattern of analyzing previous data sources gathered from reliable sources and sets a precedented growth trajectory for the Adult Stem Cells market. The report also focuses on a comprehensive market revenue streams along with growth patterns, analytics focused on market trends, and the overall volume of the market.

Moreover, the Adult Stem Cells report describes the market division based on various parameters and attributes that are based on geographical distribution, product types, applications, etc. The market segmentation clarifies further regional distribution for the Adult Stem Cells market, business trends, potential revenue sources, and upcoming market opportunities.

Key players in the global Adult Stem Cells market covered in Chapter 4: Intellicell Biosciences Inc. Globalstem Neurogeneration Capricor Inc. Caladrius Biosciences Inc. Mesoblast Ltd. Celyad Juventas Therapeutics Inc. Cytori Therapeutics Inc. Cellular Dynamics International Epistem Ltd. Brainstorm Cell Therapeutics Inc. Cellerant Therapeutics Inc. Hybrid Organ Gmbh Cellerix Sa Neuralstem International Stem Cell Corp. Beike Biotechnology Co. Ltd. Biotime Inc. Gamida Cell Ltd. Clontech

In Chapter 11 and 13.3, on the basis of types, the Adult Stem Cells market from 2015 to 2026 is primarily split into: Epithelial Stem Cells Hematopoietic Stem Cells

In Chapter 12 and 13.4, on the basis of applications, the Adult Stem Cells market from 2015 to 2026 covers: Neurodegenerative Diseases Heart Diseases Bone Diseases Others

Brief about Adult Stem Cells Market Report with [emailprotected] https://hongchunresearch.com/report/adult-stem-cells-market-size-2020-92343

Geographically, the detailed analysis of consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate, historic and forecast (2015-2026) of the following regions are covered in Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13: North America (Covered in Chapter 6 and 13) United States Canada Mexico Europe (Covered in Chapter 7 and 13) Germany UK France Italy Spain Russia Others Asia-Pacific (Covered in Chapter 8 and 13) China Japan South Korea Australia India Southeast Asia Others Middle East and Africa (Covered in Chapter 9 and 13) Saudi Arabia UAE Egypt Nigeria South Africa Others South America (Covered in Chapter 10 and 13) Brazil Argentina Columbia Chile Others

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Some Point of Table of Content:

Chapter One: Report Overview

Chapter Two: Global Market Growth Trends

Chapter Three: Value Chain of Adult Stem Cells Market

Chapter Four: Players Profiles

Chapter Five: Global Adult Stem Cells Market Analysis by Regions

Chapter Six: North America Adult Stem Cells Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Seven: Europe Adult Stem Cells Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Eight: Asia-Pacific Adult Stem Cells Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Nine: Middle East and Africa Adult Stem Cells Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Ten: South America Adult Stem Cells Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Eleven: Global Adult Stem Cells Market Segment by Types

Chapter Twelve: Global Adult Stem Cells Market Segment by Applications

Chapter Thirteen: Adult Stem Cells Market Forecast by Regions (2020-2026)

Adult Stem Cells Market Competitive Landscape & Forecast

The study uses a competitive landscape model in terms of a variety of analytical factors such as market application sales data, sold application volume and identifying the regional distribution where the Adult Stem Cells market seems at a higher edge. By following through the capabilities & opportunities for the Adult Stem Cells marketa true sense of the market scape can be gauged. During the forecast period, it helps us clearly define the optimal or favorable fit for our readers which can further helps them adopt better strategies in terms of geographical expansion, R&D and even acquiring further product integration to successfully maneuver their business ventures.

What is COVID-19 Impact on the Adult Stem Cells Market?

While the ongoing pandemic has affected every major industry, the long term effects are projected in the forecast taking into account the following factors. Our ongoing research is amplified to include the effects of the COVID-19 impacts on every leg of the Adult Stem Cells market which further helps us push our potential paths forward.

This study delivers insights on the COVID-19 considering a variety of factors such as changed consumer behavior, latest market dynamics, analyzing purchasing patterns, re-routing supply chains and financial interventions of government bodies. This updated study for Adult Stem Cells market provides insights, analytics, estimations and forecasts considering the COVID-19 impact on the Adult Stem Cells market which can help our readers sidestep the impacts as best as they can.

If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

About HongChun Research: HongChun Research main aim is to assist our clients in order to give a detailed perspective on the current market trends and build long-lasting connections with our clientele. Our studies are designed to provide solid quantitative facts combined with strategic industrial insights that are acquired from proprietary sources and an in-house model.

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Discovery for turning on cell repair in tissues and organs – Monash University

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15 February 2021

Monash University researchers have uncovered the barrier to -cell (beta cell) regeneration that could pave the way for improved treatments for diabetes and diseases that involve organ and tissue damage.

The human body doesnt repair itself very well, with our liver the only organ that can regenerate efficiently.We have limited capacity to regenerate new cells or tissue after birth as the genes involved in development are switched off.

This process happens through DNA methylation, a biological process where chemicals (methyl groups) are written on DNA and modify the way the gene functions.This modification effectively silences genes of progenitor cells (early descendants of stem cells) in the body and thereby the ability for the pancreas to generate the insulin producing -cells.

Using mouse models, the study published in Regenerative Medicine, led by Professor Sam El-Osta from Monash Central Clinical School, found that the DNA methylation content of two key developmental genes Ngn3 and Sox 11 were diminished, effectively making them repair dormant.

However, through demethylation, progenitor cells can be reawakened, restoring their capacity to become new insulin producing beta cells, thus paving the way towards improved treatments for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

The collaboration between Dr Keith Al-Hasani and Dr Ishant Khurana has unveiled some surprising results. Their discovery that DNA methylation is a barrier to adult beta-cell regeneration will assist scientists to restore beta-cell function in the pancreas, said Professor El-Osta.

Currently, replacing the damaged -cell mass in diabetic patients consists of whole pancreas or islets transplantation.Although efficient, these therapies face the shortage of organ donors together with the associated side effects of immuno-suppressive drugs.

Current research focuses on the replacement of the lost -cells in diabetic patients using several approaches and cell sources.However, critical to exploiting the potential of these regenerative approaches, is understanding how tissue and cellular processes are controlled during development.

Co-first author on the study, Dr Keith Al-Hasani added: This is a novel and significant finding that will allow us to use these sleeping beauties (stem cell-like cells) to wake up and become insulin cells to cure diabetes.

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Discovery for turning on cell repair in tissues and organs - Monash University

Be The Match encourages people of color to join bone marrow registry – KING5.com

Black patients in need of bone marrow or blood stem cell treatments have a decreased chance of matching with a donor. The Seattle branch hopes to change that.

Seattles Be The Match Collection Center opened up less than a year ago and is celebrating its 100th blood cell donation with an important message: More bone marrow donors of color are needed.

The nonprofit donation center is a part of the National Marrow Donor Program and increases the capacity to collect blood cells in the Pacific Northwest. Seattles Clinical Manager Hannah Erskine said this month is an important time to focus on the donation gap.

In the midst of Black History Month, its important to note that we frankly dont have enough Black and African American donors on the registry, said Erskin.

Only 4% of approximately 22 million donors on the registry are African American, lowering the chances that a Black patient can find a bone marrow donor who is a genetic match.

According to Be The Match data, the likelihood of finding a matched adult donor is only around 23% for an African American or Black patient, versus a 77% match rate for a white patient.

These matched bone marrow or blood stem cell transplants can help cure blood cancers like leukemia and lymphoma, as well as other blood conditions, such as sickle cell disease. Be The Match has coordinated more than 100,000 transplants.

Erskine said registering is a simple mouth swab that will be mailed to potential donors. They will be contacted if they are a match with a patient.

Being a matching blood stem cell donor can potentially save a life. The first step in changing the trend is to join the registry at http://www.bethematch.org.

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Be The Match encourages people of color to join bone marrow registry - KING5.com

Manageable Safety Profile Observed in Phase 1 Studies Examining UCART19 for Pediatric and Adult Patients with B-Cell ALL – Cancer Network

UCART19 produced a manageable safety profile in 2 separate phase 1 studies examining heavily pretreated pediatric and adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), according to data published in The Lancet.

For the first time, these studies support the feasibility of UCART19 and other genome-edited, donor-derived allogeneic anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells to treat this group of patients with aggressive forms of ALL.

Phase 1 trials in paediatric and adult patients with late-stage relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia have shown the feasibility, safety, and activity of UCART19, an off-the-shelf CAR T-cell product, wrote the investigative team. The results of these trials represent a substantial step forward in the development of CAR T cells and could herald a new, effective, and easily accessible cell therapy for patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

The results determined that the most common adverse event between both phase 1 studies was cytokine release syndrome (CRS), observed in 19 patients (91%). Three patients (14%) experienced grade 3/4 CRS.

More, 8 patients (38%) experienced grades 1/2 neurotoxicity, 2 (10%) experienced grade 1 acute skin graft-versus-host disease, and 6 (32%) had grade 4 prolonged cytopenia.

The research team recorded 2 treatment-related deaths between the 2 studies. The first was caused by neutropenic sepsis in a patient with concurrent CRS and the other was from pulmonary hemorrhage in a patient with persistent cytopenia.

Overall, 14 of 21 patients (67%) experienced a complete response or complete response with incomplete hematological recovery at 28 days following infusion. Median duration of response was recorded at 4.1 months, with 10 of 14 adult patients (71%) progressing to subsequent allogeneic stem cell transplant. The progression-free survival rate at 6 months was 27%, with an overall survival rate of 55%.

The adverse effects observed with UCART19 to date seem similar to those reported for autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells, wrote the investigators. Cytokine release syndrome was encountered in the majority of patients in whom UCART19 expansion was detected and appeared no more severe than with approved autologous products.

The 2 ongoing, multicenter, clinical trials (NCT02808442 and NCT02746952) enrolled 7 pediatric and 14 adult patients from June 3, 2016, through October 23, 2018, to examine the safety profile and antileukemic activity of UCART19.

The dose-escalation studies began with patients undergoing lymphodepletion with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide, with or without alemtuzumab (Lemtrada), followed by different doses of UCART19 for adults and children. The primary end point of the data was adverse events.

The small sample size for the investigation is the leading limitation for the research, but the research team also mentioned the differing trial designs, lymphodepletion regimens, and UCART19 cell doses to be among limitations of both trials.

The results [of these studies] are an encouraging step forward for the field of allogeneic CAR T cells, and UCART19 offers the opportunity to treat patients with rapidly progressive disease and where autologous CAR T-cell therapy is unavailable, wrote the investigators.

Reference:

Benjamin R, Graham C, Yallop D, et al. Genome-edited, donor-derived allogeneic anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells in paediatric and adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of two phase 1 studies. Lancet. 2020;396(10266):1885-1894. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32334-5

Read more here:
Manageable Safety Profile Observed in Phase 1 Studies Examining UCART19 for Pediatric and Adult Patients with B-Cell ALL - Cancer Network

The Very First Signs of an Immune Response Have Been Filmed in a Developing Embryo – ScienceAlert

Even as a hollow ball of embryonic cells, developing fish and mammals are not entirely defenceless.

The very first tissue, formed on the surface of a vertebrate blastula, has been shown to possess an innate immune response.

Incredible new research has shown that long before the development of organs or specialized immune cells, this simple protective layer, known as the epithelium, can reach out with its arm-like protrusions and detect, ingest, and destroy defective cells - helping to increase the embryo's chance of survival.

This 'surprisingly' efficient process, which was filmed in zebrafish and later confirmed in mice, is the earliest sign of an immune response in vertebrates.

Better understanding how it works could help researchers figure out why some embryos fail to form in those earliest states, potentially lead to new approaches for treating infertility or early miscarriages.

"Here we propose a new evolutionarily conserved function for epithelia as efficient scavengers of dying cells in the earliest stages of vertebrate embryogenesis," says cell biologist Verena Ruprecht from the Centre for Genomic Regulation.

"Our work may have important clinical applications by one day leading to improved screening methods and embryo quality assessment standards used in fertility clinics."

In developing animals, it's not uncommon for embryos to produce cellular errors during rapid cell division, and these can cause the whole embryo to fail if not taken care of. In fact, such mistakes are thought to be a leading reason for why embryos do not survive to reach implantation.

Scientists have long suspected there is an innate immune response at play, keeping fragile young embryos from threats such as sporadic cell death, inflammation, and infectious agents.

Recent research has revealed such innate immune responses in both mouse and human embryonic stem cells. But up until now, no one had ever seen it in action at the earliest stages.

This newest study is the first to explain how 'garbage collectors' like apoptotic cells are cleared out of the blastula without a specialised immune system. As you can see in the footage below, it looks a little like PAC-MAN.

So how does it work?

The blastula is a hollow ball, one cell thick, and the first stage of embryogenesis. The next stage includes further division into three germ layers, known as the gastrula.

In both these preliminary stages, researchers found evidence for the clearance of apoptotic cells, which initiate cell death.

Using four dimensional in vivo imaging of mice and zebrafish embryos, the authors show two types of epithelial 'arms' that seem to gobble up and destroy these apoptotic cells.

The first protrusion is called a phagocytic cup, and it helps scoop up and swallow the apoptotic target, a process known as phagocytosis. This structure is not unlike what we see in adult organisms, where epithelial phagocytosis keep organs and tissues healthy from infection and inflammation.

The second protrusion is a previously undescribed structure that is fast and can mechanically push apoptotic targets around, herding them into manageable positions.

"The cells cooperate mechanically," explains developmental biologist Esteban Hoijman, "like people distributing food around the dining table before tucking into their meal, we found that epithelial cells push defective cells towards other epithelial cells, speeding up the removal of dying cells."

Three dimensional tracking of these defective cells show they actually accumulate inside the epithelium, which suggests this protective layer is singling out certain cells specifically and gulping them up.

Even in conditions with abundant apoptosis, or cell death, occurring, zebrafish embryos were able to survive, which suggests this immune response is a highly efficient one.

Within two hours, in fact, the authors found the embryonic epithelium could remove 68 apoptotic particles.

Even when programmed cell death was triggered in the blastula using only two photons of illumination, the embryo showed epithelial clearance, indicating an impressive level of sensitivity.

"Together, these observations establish epithelial clearance as an error-correction mechanism that is present at the blastula stages of embryonic development," the authors conclude.

Zebrafish are model organisms for studying embryonic development, but to see whether this 'epithelial scavenging' also stood in mammals, the authors investigated what cell death looks like in mouse blastocysts.

Through time lapse imaging, the results reveal several apoptotic events, whereby cells are forced out of the blastocyst cavity and later ingested by the trophoblast. This is a tissue on the outside of the mammalian embryo that later forms a large part of the placenta. It also shows some level of innate immune response.

When mouse blastocysts were transplanted with apoptotic embryonic stem cells, the authors observed trophoblast cells eating up the targets.

Similar functions have also been documented in the human trophectoderm, which suggests the phagocytic epithelium has also been conserved in mammals and doesn't just appear in fish.

Knowing how mammal embryos survive from blastocyst to implantation could not only allow scientists to develop better fertility treatments, it could also teach us something about the early immune system - a power we could possibly try to replicate in adult tissues.

"Here we show that during early vertebrate development, epithelial cells specialize to perform phagocytic immune functions in the complete absence of immune cells," the authors write.

"At later developmental stages, professional phagocytes differentiate and can share their phagocytic tasks with mesenchymal or epithelial cells."

Future research will determine if the same innate immune process is also observed in invertebrates.

The study was published in Nature.

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The Very First Signs of an Immune Response Have Been Filmed in a Developing Embryo - ScienceAlert