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Stem cell therapy: a potential approach for treatment of influenza virus and coronavirus-induced acute lung injury – BMC Blogs Network

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a devastating disease process involving pulmonary edema and atelectasis caused by capillary membrane injury [1]. The main clinical manifestation is the acute onset of hypoxic respiratory failure, which can subsequently trigger a cascade of serious complications and even death [2]. Thus, ALI causes a considerable financial burden for health care systems throughout the world. ALI can result from various causes, including multiple traumas, large-volume blood transfusions, and bacterial and viral infections [2, 3]. A variety of viruses, including influenza virus, coronavirus (CoV), adenovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), are associated with ALI [4]. Importantly, most viruses, whose hosts are various animal species, can cause severe and rapidly spreading human infections. In the early 2000s, several outbreaks of influenza virus and CoV emerged, causing human respiratory and intestinal diseases worldwide, including the more recent SARS-CoV-2 infection [5,6,7]. To date, SARS-CoV-2 has affected more than 80,000 people, causing nearly 3300 deaths in China and more than 1,800,000 people, causing nearly 110,000 deaths all over the world (

Infectious respiratory diseases caused by different viruses are associated with similar respiratory symptoms ranging from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome [8]. This makes the clinical distinction between different agents involved in infection very difficult [8, 9]. Currently, the clinical experience mainly includes antibacterial and antiviral drug treatment derived from handling several outbreaks of influenza virus and human CoVs. Numerous agents have been identified to inhibit the entry and/or replication of these viruses in cell culture or animal models [10]. Although these antiviral drugs can effectively prevent and eliminate the virus, the full recovery from pneumonia and ALI depends on the resistance of the patient. Recently, stem cell-based therapy has become a potential approved tool for the treatment of virus-induced lung injury [11,12,13]. Here, we will give a brief overview of influenza virus and CoVs and then present the cell-based therapeutic options for lung injury caused by different kinds of viruses.

Influenza virus and human CoV are the two most threatening viruses for infectious lung injury [14]. These pathogens can be transmitted through direct or indirect physical contact, droplets, or aerosols, with increasing evidence suggesting that airborne transmission, including via droplets or aerosols, enhances the efficiency of viral transmission among humans and causes uncontrolled infectious disease [15]. Throughout human history, outbreaks and occasional pandemics caused by influenza virus and CoV have led to approximately hundreds of millions of deaths worldwide [16].

Influenza virus is a well-known human pathogen that has a negative-sense RNA genome [17]. According to its distinct antigenic properties, the influenza virus can be divided into 4 subtypes, types A, B, C, and D. Influenza A virus (IAV) lineages in animal populations cause economically important respiratory disease. Little is known about the other human influenza virus types B, C, and D [18]. Further subtypes are characterized by the genetic and antigenic properties of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins [19]. Sporadic and seasonal infections in swine with avian influenza viruses of various subtypes have been reported. The most recent human pandemic virusesH1N1 from swine and H5N1 from aviancause severe respiratory tract disease and lung injury in humans [20, 21].

CoVs, a large family of single-stranded RNA viruses, typically affect the respiratory tract of mammals, including humans. CoVs are further divided into four genera: alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-CoVs. Alpha- and beta-CoVs can infect mammals, and gamma- and delta-CoVs tend to infect birds, but some of these viruses can also be transmitted to mammals [22]. Human CoVs were considered relatively harmless respiratory pathogens in the past. Infections with the human CoV strains 229E, OC43, NL63, and HKU1 usually result in mild respiratory illness, such as the common cold [23]. In contrast, the CoV responsible for the 2002 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), the 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), and, more recently, the SARS-CoV-2 have received global attention owing to their genetic variation and rapid spread in human populations [5,6,7].

Usually, the influenza virus can enter the columnar epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, such as the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. Subsequently, the influenza virus begins to replicate for an asymptomatic period of time and then migrate to the lung tissue to cause acute lung and respiratory injury [24]. Similar to those with influenza virus infection, patients with SARS, MERS, or SARS-CoV-2 present with various clinical features, ranging from asymptomatic or mild respiratory illness to severe ALI, even with multiple organ failure [5,6,7]. The pathogenesis of ALI caused by influenza virus and human CoV is often associated with rapid viral replication, marked inflammatory cell infiltration, and elevated proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses [25]. Interestingly, in IAV- and human CoV-infected individuals, the pulmonary pathology always involves diffuse alveolar damage, but viral RNA is present in only a subset of patients [26]. Some studies suggest that an overly exaggerated immune response, rather than uncontrolled viral spread, is the primary cause in fatal cases caused by virus infection [27]. Several immune cell types have been found to contribute to damaging host responses, providing novel approaches for therapeutic intervention [28].

IAV infection, the most common cause of viral pneumonia, causes substantial seasonal and pandemic morbidity and mortality [29]. Currently, antiviral drugs are the primary treatment strategy for influenza-induced pneumonia. However, antiviral drugs cannot repair damaged lung cells. Here, we summarize the present studies of stem cell therapy for influenza virus-induced lung injury.

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) constitute a heterogeneous subset of stromal regenerative cells that can be harvested from several adult tissue types, including bone marrow, umbilical cord, adipose, and endometrium [30]. They retain the expression of the markers CD29, CD73, CD90, and CD105 and have a rapid proliferation rate, low immunogenicity, and low tumorigenicity [30]. MSCs also have self-renewal and multidifferentiation capabilities and exert immunomodulatory and tissue repair effects by secreting trophic factors, cytokines, and chemokines [31]. Due to these beneficial biological properties, MSCs and their derivatives are attractive as cellular therapies for various inflammatory diseases, including virus-induced lung injury.

Several studies on IAV-infected animal models have shown the beneficial effects of the administration of different tissue-derived MSCs [32,33,34,35]. H5N1 virus infection reduces alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and enhances alveolar protein permeability (APP) in human alveolar epithelial cells, which can be inhibited by coculture with human bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) [32]. Mechanistically, this process can be mediated by human BMSC secreted angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) [32]. Moreover, in vivo experiments have shown that human BMSCs have a significant anti-inflammatory effect by increasing the number of M2 macrophages and releasing various cytokines and chemokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17 [32]. Similar anti-inflammatory effects have been achieved in another virus-induced lung injury model. The intravenous injection of mouse BMSCs into H9N2 virus-infected mice significantly attenuates H9N2 virus-induced pulmonary inflammation by reducing chemokine (GM-CSF, MCP-1, KC, MIP-1, and MIG) and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-, and IFN-) levels, as well as reducing inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs [33]. Another study on human BMSCs cocultured with CD8+ T cells showed that MSCs inhibit the proliferation of virus-specific CD8+ T cells and the release of IFN- by specific CD8+ T cells [36].

In addition, human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) were found to have a similar effect as BMSCs on AFC, APP, and inflammation by secreting growth factors, including Ang1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), in an in vitro lung injury model induced by H5N1 virus [34]. UC-MSCs also promote lung injury mouse survival, increase the body weight, and decreased the APP levels and inflammation in vivo [34]. Unlike Ang1, KGF, and HGF mentioned above, basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) plays an important role in lung injury therapy via immunoregulation. The administration of the recombinant FGF2 protein improves H1N1-induced mouse lung injury and promotes the survival of infected mice by recruiting and activating neutrophils via the FGFR2-PI3K-AKT-NFB signaling pathway [37]. FGF2-overexpressing MSCs have an enhanced therapeutic effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI, as assessed by the proinflammatory factor level, neutrophil quantity, and histopathological index of the lung [38].

MSCs secrete various soluble factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs), which carry lipids, proteins, DNA, mRNA, microRNAs, small RNAs, and organelles. These biologically active components can be transferred to recipient cells to exert anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and tissue regeneration functions [39]. EVs isolated from conditioned medium of pig BMSCs have been demonstrated to have anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation, and antiviral replication functions in H1N1-affected lung epithelial cells and alleviate H1N1-induced lung injury in pigs [35]. Moreover, the preincubation of EVs with RNase abrogates their anti-influenza activity, suggesting that the anti-influenza activity of EVs is due to the transfer of RNAs from EVs to epithelial cells [35]. Exosomes are a subset of EVs that are 50200nm in diameter and positive for CD63 and CD81 [40]. Exosomes isolated from the conditioned medium of UC-MSCs restore the impaired AFC and decreased APP in alveolar epithelial cells affected by H5N1 virus [34]. In addition, the ability of UC-MSCs to increase AFC is superior to that of exosomes, which indicates that other components secreted by UC-MSCs have synergistic effects with exosomes [34].

Despite accumulating evidence demonstrating the therapeutic effects of MSC administration in various preclinical models of lung injury, some studies have shown contrasting results. Darwish and colleagues proved that neither the prophylactic nor therapeutic administration of murine or human BMSCs could decrease pulmonary inflammation or prevent the progression of ALI in H1N1 virus-infected mice [41]. In addition, combining MSC administration with the antiviral agent oseltamivir was also found to be ineffective [41]. Similar negative results were obtained in another preclinical study. Murine or human BMSCs were administered intravenously to H1N1-induced ARDS mice [42]. Although murine BMSCs prevented influenza-induced thrombocytosis and caused a modest reduction in lung viral load, murine or human BMSCs failed to improve influenza-mediated lung injury as assessed by weight loss, the lung water content, and bronchoalveolar lavage inflammation and histology, which is consistent with Darwishs findings [42]. However, the mild reduction in viral load observed in response to murine BMSC treatment suggests that, on balance, MSCs are mildly immunostimulatory in this model [42]. Although there are some controversial incidents in preclinical research, the transplant of menstrual-blood-derived MSCs into patients with H7N9-induced ARDS was conducted at a single center through an open-label clinical trial ( MSC transplantation significantly lowered the mortality and did not result in harmful effects in the bodies of the patients [43]. This clinic study suggests that MSCs significantly improve the survival rate of influenza virus-induced lung injury.

The effects of exogenous MSCs are exerted through their isolation and injection into test animals. There are also some stem/progenitor cells that can be activated to proliferate when various tissues are injured. Basal cells (BCs), distributed throughout the pseudostratified epithelium from the trachea to the bronchioles, are a class of multipotent tissue-specific stem cells from various organs, including the skin, esophagus, and olfactory and airway epithelia [44, 45]. Previously, TPR63+/KRT5+ BCs were shown to self-renew and divide into club cells and ciliated cells to maintain the pseudostratified epithelium of proximal airways [46]. Several studies have shown that TPR63+/KRT5+ BCs play a key role in lung repair and regeneration after influenza virus infection. When animals typically recover from H1N1 influenza infection, TPR63+/KRT5+ BCs accumulate robustly in the lung parenchyma and initiate an injury repair process to maintain normal lung function by differentiating into mature epithelium [47]. Lineage-negative epithelial stem/progenitor (LNEP) cells, present in the normal distal lung, can activate a TPR63+/KRT5+ remodeling program through Notch signaling after H1N1 influenza infection [48]. Moreover, a population of SOX2+/SCGB1A/KRT5 progenitor cells can generate nascent KRT5+ cells as an early response to airway injury upon H1N1 influenza virus infection [49]. In addition, a rare p63+Krt5 progenitor cell population also responds to H1N1 virus-induced severe injury [50]. This evidence suggests that these endogenous lung stem/progenitor cells (LSCs) play a critical role in the repopulation of damaged lung tissue following severe influenza virus infection (Table2).

Taken together, the present in vitro (Table1) and in vivo (Table2) results show that MSCs and LSCs are potential cell sources to treat influenza virus-induced lung injury.

Lung injury caused by SARS, MERS, or SARS-CoV-2 poses major clinical management challenges because there is no specific treatment that has been proven to be effective for each infection. Currently, virus- and host-based therapies are the main methods of treatment for spreading CoV infections. Virus- and host-based therapies include monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs that target the key proteins and pathways that mediate viral entry and replication [51].The major challenges in the clinical development of novel drugs include a limited number of suitable animal models for SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 infections and the current absence of new SARS and MERS cases [51]. Although the number of cases of SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia patients is continuously increasing, antibiotic and antiviral drugs are the primary methods to treat SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Similar to that of IAV, human CoV-mediated damage to the respiratory epithelium results from both intrinsic viral pathogenicity and a robust host immune response. The excessive immune response contributes to viral clearance and can also worsen the severity of lung injury, including the demise of lung cells [52]. However, the present treatment approaches have a limited effect on lung inflammation and regeneration.

Stem cell therapy for influenza virus-induced lung injury shows promise in preclinical models. Although it is difficult to establish preclinical models of CoV-induced lung injury, we consider stem cell therapies to be effective approaches to improve human CoV-induced lung injury. Acute inflammatory responses are one of the major underlying mechanisms for virus-induced lung injury. Innate immune cells, including neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes-macrophages (IMMs), are major innate leukocyte subsets that protect against viral lung infections [53]. Both neutrophils and IMMs are rapidly recruited to the site of infection and play crucial roles in the host defense against viruses. Neutrophils and IMMs can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and produce interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines/chemokines [54]. There are two functional effects produced by the recruitment of neutrophils and IMMs: the orchestration of effective adaptive T cell responses and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines [55]. However, excessive inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion impairs antiviral T cell responses, leading to ineffective viral clearance and reduced survival [56].

MSCs are known to suppress both innate and adaptive immune responses. MSCs have been suggested to inhibit many kinds of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and natural killer (NK) cells in vitro and in vivo [57] (Fig.1). Several molecules, including IL-1, TNF-, and INF-, most of which are produced by inflammatory cells, are reported to be involved in MSC-mediated immunosuppression [58]. Furthermore, MSCs can produce numerous immunosuppressive molecules, such as IL-6, PGE2, IDO, and IL-10, in response to inflammatory stimuli. PGE2 has been reported to mediate the MSC-mediated suppression of T cells, NK cells, and macrophages. Moreover, PGE2 has been found to act with IDO to alter the proliferation of T cells and NK cells [59]. In contrast, MSCs have come to be recognized as one type of adult stem cell actively participating in tissue repair by closely interacting with inflammatory cells and various other cell types [60]. Numerous reports have demonstrated that MSCs can release an array of growth and inhibitory factors, such as EGF, FGF, PDGF, and VEGF, and express several leukocyte chemokines, such as CXCL9, CCL2, CXCL10, and CXCL11. These factors provide an important microenvironment to activate adaptive immunity for lung repair [61]. Thus, the dual functions of MSCs may improve lung recovery after human CoV-induced ALI. Recently, MSCs was transplanted intravenously to enrolled patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. After treatment, the pulmonary function and symptoms of these patients were significantly improved. Meanwhile, the peripheral lymphocytes were increased, the C-reactive protein decreased, the level of TNF- was significantly decreased, and the overactivated cytokine-secreting immune cells disappeared. In addition, a group of regulatory DC cell population dramatically increased. Thus, the intravenous transplantation of MSCs was effective for treatment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia [62, 63].

Stem cell therapies for treatment of influenza virus and coronavirus-induced lung injury. CoVs, coronavirus; MSCs, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells; LSCs, lung stem/progenitor cells; NK cells, natural killer cells; DC cells, dendritic cells

In addition, endogenous LSCs also play an important role in lung cell reconstitution after virus-induced ALI. In particular, TPR63+/KRT5+ airway BCs comprise approximately equal numbers of stem cells and committed precursors and give rise to differentiated luminal cells during steady state and epithelial repair after lung injury [44, 64]. Research has shown that KRT5+ cells repopulate damaged alveolar parenchyma following influenza virus infection [47]. However, there is still little evidence for the role of altered TPR63+/KRT5+ stem cells during lung injury repair caused by human CoVs.

In summary, exogenous MSCs may modulate human CoV-induced lung injury repair and regeneration through their immunoregulatory properties. These cells are capable of interacting with various types of immune cell, including neutrophils, macrophages, T cells, B cells, NK cells, and DCs. Furthermore, viral infections can activate endogenous LSCs to produce new lung cells and maintain lung function (Fig.1). Thus, we propose that MSCs and LSCs are two potential cell sources for treating human CoV-induced lung injury.

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Stem cell therapy: a potential approach for treatment of influenza virus and coronavirus-induced acute lung injury - BMC Blogs Network

Startup targets glioblastoma tumors with CAR-T therapy – FierceBiotech

One of the major breakthroughs in cancer treatment is CAR-T technology, which involves genetically modifyinga patients own immune cells so they can recognize and attack cancer. But while the innovationhas benefited patients with certain blood malignancies, progress in solid tumors remains limited.

Now, scientists at McMaster University and the University of Toronto have developed a CAR-T therapy for the aggressive brain cancer glioblastoma. It helped reduce tumor burden and improved survival in mouse models, according to a new study published in the journal Cell Stem Cell.

The researchers were so encouraged by the findings that they launched a startup called Empirica Therapeutics, which aims to bring the CAR-T drug into clinical trials in recurrent glioblastoma patients by 2022.

For each CAR-T construct, T cells are modified to produce a special structure called a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that gives the cells the ability to recognize a specific protein on cancer cells. The two FDA-approved CAR-Ts, Novartis Kymriah and Gilead Sciences Yescarta, are directed toward CD19. TheCAR-T cell Empirica is developing targets CD133, also known as prominin-1.

In a 2003 Cancer Research study, a McMaster University team identified a group of neural stem cells from human brain tumors that bear CD133 on their surface. They found these CD133-expressing cells could differentiate into cells identical to the original tumor, suggesting these stem cells are necessary for glioblastoma tumor growth.

For the current study, the team tested three types of treatments in lab dishes and in mice. The first was a human IgG antibody that binds to CD133 on glioblastoma cells. The second was a bispecific T-cell engager antibody (BiTE), which can recruit cytotoxic T cells to kill tumor cells. The third was the CAR-T, known at Empirica as eCAR-133.

We found that the CAR-T therapy had enhanced activity compared to the other two therapeutics in preclinical models of human glioblastoma, Parvez Vora, the studys first author and director of preclinical development at Empirica, said in a statement.

Moreover, the CAR-T drug didnt induce any acute systemic toxicity in mice, showing it wouldnt disrupt hematopoiesis, a vital process in the human body that leads to the formation of blood cells, Vora said.

RELATED:Killing brain tumors with CAR-Ts built with scorpion venom

The potent clinical responses from CAR-T cells in blood cancers have sparked interest in exploring the approach in solid tumors, including hard-to-treat glioblastoma. A research team at City of Hope recently designed a novel CAR based on chlorotoxin, a toxin found in scorpion venom, and recorded promising results of the CAR-T cells in mice with glioblastoma xenografts.

There are many obstacles ahead. For one thing, the glioblastoma tumor microenvironment is notoriously immunosuppressive, which could dampen CAR-T cells activity once they arrive at the tumor site.

Besides CD133, other glioblastoma CAR-T targets that have been floated include IL-13Ra2 from City of Hope researchers, CSPG4froma team at the University of North Carolina, NKG2DL and EGFRvIII, among others.One possibility could be a combo of CAR-T and BiTEtechnologies. Last year, a team led by Massachusetts General Hospital designeda CAR-T that also expressed BiTE to activate bystander T cells against tumors. The CAR-T/BiTE cells eliminated tumors in mouse models of glioblastoma.

The Empirica scientists are also exploring combination strategies for their CD133-targeting CAR-T to treat glioblastoma."We hope that our work will now advance the development of really new and promising treatment options for these patients," said co-author Sheila Singh, professor in the department of surgery at McMaster and CEO of the startup.

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Startup targets glioblastoma tumors with CAR-T therapy - FierceBiotech

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Business Impact Stem Cell Therapy Market Size Analysis 2019-2027 – Cole of Duty

Analysis of the Global Stem Cell Therapy Market

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According to the analysts at Stem Cell Therapy , the Stem Cell Therapy market is predicted to register a CAGR growth of ~XX% during the assessment and reach a value of ~US$ XX by the end of 20XX. The report analyzes the micro and macro-economic factors that are projected to influence the growth of the Stem Cell Therapy market in the coming decade.

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Competition AnalysisIn the competitive analysis section of the report, leading as well as prominent players of the global Stem Cell Therapy market are broadly studied on the basis of key factors. The report offers comprehensive analysis and accurate statistics on revenue by the player for the period 2015-2020. It also offers detailed analysis supported by reliable statistics on price and revenue (global level) by player for the period 2015-2020.On the whole, the report proves to be an effective tool that players can use to gain a competitive edge over their competitors and ensure lasting success in the global Stem Cell Therapy market. All of the findings, data, and information provided in the report are validated and revalidated with the help of trustworthy sources. The analysts who have authored the report took a unique and industry-best research and analysis approach for an in-depth study of the global Stem Cell Therapy market.The following players are covered in this report:Osiris TherapeuticsNuVasiveChiesi PharmaceuticalsJCR PharmaceuticalPharmicellMedi-postAnterogenMolmedTakeda (TiGenix)Stem Cell Therapy Breakdown Data by TypeAutologousAllogeneicStem Cell Therapy Breakdown Data by ApplicationMusculoskeletal DisorderWounds & InjuriesCorneaCardiovascular DiseasesOthers

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COVID-19: Responding to the business impacts of Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy Revenue, Opportunity, Forecast and Value Chain 2019-2020 – Cole of Duty

Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy Market 2018: Global Industry Insights by Global Players, Regional Segmentation, Growth, Applications, Major Drivers, Value and Foreseen till 2024

The report provides both quantitative and qualitative information of global Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy market for period of 2018 to 2025. As per the analysis provided in the report, the global market of Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy is estimated to growth at a CAGR of _% during the forecast period 2018 to 2025 and is expected to rise to USD _ million/billion by the end of year 2025. In the year 2016, the global Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy market was valued at USD _ million/billion.

This research report based on Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy market and available with Market Study Report includes latest and upcoming industry trends in addition to the global spectrum of the Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy market that includes numerous regions. Likewise, the report also expands on intricate details pertaining to contributions by key players, demand and supply analysis as well as market share growth of the Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy industry.

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The Research projects that the Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy market size will grow from in 2018 to by 2024, at an estimated CAGR of XX%. The base year considered for the study is 2018, and the market size is projected from 2018 to 2024.

The report on the Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy market provides a birds eye view of the current proceeding within the Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy market. Further, the report also takes into account the impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy market and offers a clear assessment of the projected market fluctuations during the forecast period. The different factors that are likely to impact the overall dynamics of the Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy market over the forecast period (2019-2029) including the current trends, growth opportunities, restraining factors, and more are discussed in detail in the market study.

Leading manufacturers of Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy Market:

The key players covered in this studyEscape Therapeutics, Inc.Lonza Group Ltd.Osiris Therapeutics (Smith & Nephew)NuVasiveChiesi PharmaceuticalsJCR PharmaceuticalPharmicellAnterogenMolMed S.p.A.Takeda (TiGenix)

Market segment by Type, the product can be split intoAdult Stem Cell TherapyHuman Embryonic Stem Cell TherapyInduced Pluripotent Stem Cell TherapyOthersMarket segment by Application, split intoMusculoskeletal DisorderWounds & InjuriesCardiovascular DiseasesOthers

Market segment by Regions/Countries, this report coversNorth AmericaEuropeChinaJapanSouth Korea

The study objectives of this report are:To analyze global Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players.To present the Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy development in North America, Europe, China, Japan and South Korea.To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their development plan and strategies.To define, describe and forecast the market by type, market and key regions.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy are as follows:History Year: 2015-2019Base Year: 2019Estimated Year: 2020Forecast Year 2020 to 2026For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2019 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

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AUGUSTMAN Grooming Awards 2020 Part IV: Best Head-To-Toe Treatment Services For Gentlemen – AUGUSTMAN

Introducing the best in mens grooming for the year. The fourth and final segment in this series is a compilation of trusted head-to-toe treatment services every gentleman should indulge in to look and feel your best.Sometimes its better to leave things to an experts hands.

Treatment: CO2 Skin Renewal Facial Treatment, Porcelain

This treatment helps to deal with adult skin issues ranging from acne to ageing. To address the latter, a combination of a C02 mask and cryoprobes work to promote collagen production, boost blood circulation and tighten sagging skin. A hydrating enzyme mask then restores moisture and dissolves acne-causing grime and debris. Theres nothing to complain about when we left the compound with improved skin.Available at Porcelain for $298.50

Treatment: The Ultimate Shave Experience, Truefitt + Hill

We found out why people say its better to leave things to the experts. At this salon, the barber put us through an aromatic hot towel treatment to both soften our facial hair and help us relax. Swift and gentle strokes of the straight razor gave us a close shave, leaving our skin baby smooth and looking dapper fresh. We also appreciate the massage, which made us forget our worries and feel good to be alive.Available at Truefitt + Hill for $80

Treatment: Miracle Stem Cell Treatment, PHS Hairscience

This may not be as effective as a hair transplant, but it is a much less painful alternative to revive dormant hair follicles. The treatment uses the brands potent Miracle Stem Cell Solution, which contains a blend of growth factors, botanical stem cells and nutrients that nourish the scalp and encourage hair growth. DHT blockers neutralise the effects of androgen, the hormonal culprit behind hair loss.Available at PHS Hairscience for $297

Treatment: Rescue & Release Massage, Raffles Spa

Whether you pick the 60- or 90- minute option, this massage provides soothing relief from the tensions that city life inflicts. Swedish techniques were used to loosen tight knots, and this release of built-up tension left us feeling calmer and more in touch with our senses. The luxurious oils used in the treatment also left our skin feeling moisturised and nourished. Make time to use the baths to reap fuller relaxation benefits.Available at Raffles Hotel from $245

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AUGUSTMAN Grooming Awards 2020 Part IV: Best Head-To-Toe Treatment Services For Gentlemen - AUGUSTMAN

On the Origins of Modern Biology and the Fantastic: Part 18 Nalo Hopkinson and Stem Cell Research –

She just wanted to be somewhere safe, somewhere familiar, where people looked and spoke like her and she could stand to eat the food. Midnight Robber by Nalo Hopkinson

Midnight Robber (2000) is about a woman, divided. Raised on the high-tech utopian planet of Touissant, Tan-Tan grows up on a planet populated by the descendants of a Caribbean diaspora, where all labor is performed by an all-seeing AI. But when she is exiled to Touissants parallel universe twin planet, the no-tech New Half-Way Tree, with her sexually abusive father, she becomes divided between good and evil Tan-Tans. To make herself and New Half-Way Tree whole, she adopts the persona of the legendary Robber Queen and becomes a legend herself. It is a wondrous blend of science fictional tropes and Caribbean mythology written in a Caribbean vernacular which vividly recalls the history of slavery and imperialism that shaped Touissant and its people, published at a time when diverse voices and perspectives within science fiction were blossoming.

Science fiction has long been dominated by white, Western perspectives. Vernes tech-forward adventures and Wells sociological allegories established two distinctive styles, but still centered on white imperialism and class struggle. Subsequent futures depicted in Verne-like pulp and Golden Age stories, where lone white heroes conquered evil powers or alien planets, mirrored colonialist history and the subjugation of non-white races. The civil rights era saw the incorporation of more Wellsian sociological concerns, and an increase in the number of non-white faces in the future, but they were often tokensparts of a dominant white monoculture. Important figures that presaged modern diversity included Star Treks Lieutenant Uhura, played by Nichelle Nichols. Nichols was the first black woman to play a non-servant character on TV; though her glorified secretary role frustrated Nichols, her presence was a political act, showing there was space for black people in the future.

Another key figure was the musician and poet Sun Ra, who laid the aesthetic foundation for what would become known as the Afrofuturist movement (the term coined by Mark Dery in a 1994 essay), which showed pride in black history and imagined the future through a black cultural lens. Within science fiction, the foundational work of Samuel Delany and Octavia Butler painted realistic futures in which the histories and cultural differences of people of color had a place. Finally, an important modern figure in the decentralization of the dominant Western perspective is Nalo Hopkinson.

A similarly long-standing paradigm lies at the heart of biology, extending back to Darwins theoretical and Mendels practical frameworks for the evolution of genetic traits via natural selection. Our natures werent determined by experience, as Lamarck posited, but by genes. Therefore, genes determine our reproductive fitness, and if we can understand genes, we might take our futures into our own hands to better treat disease and ease human suffering. This theory was tragically over-applied, even by Darwin, who in Descent of Man (1871) conflated culture with biology, assuming the Wests conquest of indigenous cultures meant white people were genetically superior. After the Nazis committed genocide in the name of an all-white future, ideas and practices based in eugenics declined, as biological understanding of genes matured. The Central Dogma of the 60s maintained the idea of a mechanistic meaning of life, as advances in genetic engineering and the age of genomics enabled our greatest understanding yet of how genes and disease work. The last major barrier between us and our transhumanist future therefore involved understanding how genes determine cellular identity, and as well see, key figures in answering that question are stem cells.


Hopkinson was born December 20, 1960 in Kingston, Jamaica. Her mother was a library technician and her father wrote, taught, and acted. Growing up, Hopkinson was immersed in the Caribbean literary scene, fed on a steady diet of theater, dance, readings, and visual arts exhibitions. She loved to readfrom folklore, to classical literature, to Kurt Vonnegutand loved science fiction, from Spock and Uhura on Star Trek, to Le Guin, James Tiptree Jr., and Delany. Despite being surrounded by a vibrant writing community, it didnt occur to her to become a writer herself. What they were writing was poetry and mimetic fiction, Hopkinson said, whereas I was reading science fiction and fantasy. It wasnt until I was 16 and stumbled upon an anthology of stories written at the Clarion Science Fiction Workshop that I realized there were places where you could be taught how to write fiction. Growing up, her family moved often, from Jamaica to Guyana to Trinidad and back, but in 1977, they moved to Toronto to get treatment for her fathers chronic kidney disease, and Hopkinson suddenly became a minority, thousands of miles from home.

Development can be described as an orderly alienation. In mammals, zygotes divide and subsets of cells become functionally specialized into, say, neurons or liver cells. Following the discovery of DNA as the genetic material in the 1950s, a question arose: did dividing cells retain all genes from the zygote, or were genes lost as it specialized? British embryologist John Gurdon addressed this question in a series of experiments in the 60s using frogs. Gurdon transplanted nuclei from varyingly differentiated cells into oocytes stripped of their genetic material to see if a new frog was made. He found the more differentiated a cell was, the lower the chance of success, but the successes confirmed that no genetic material was lost. Meanwhile, Canadian biologists Ernest McCulloch and James Till were transplanting bone marrow to treat irradiated mice when they noticed it caused lumps in the mices spleens, and the number of lumps correlated with the cellular dosage. Their lab subsequently demonstrated that each lump was a clonal colony from a single donor cell, and a subset of those cells was self-renewing and could form further colonies of any blood cell type. They had discovered hematopoietic stem cells. In 1981 the first embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from mice were successfully propagated in culture by British biologist Martin Evans, winning him the Nobel Prize in 2007. This breakthrough allowed biologists to alter genes in ESCs, then use Gurdons technique to create transgenic mice with that alteration in every cellcreating the first animal models of disease.

In 1982, one year after Evans discovery, Hopkinson graduated with honors from York University. She worked in the arts, as a library clerk, government culture research officer, and grants officer for the Toronto Arts Council, but wouldnt begin publishing her own fiction until she was 34. [I had been] politicized by feminist and Caribbean literature into valuing writing that spoke of particular cultural experiences of living under colonialism/patriarchy, and also of writing in ones own vernacular speech, Hopkinson said. In other words, I had models for strong fiction, and I knew intimately the body of work to which I would be responding. Then I discovered that Delany was a black man, which opened up a space for me in SF/F that I hadnt known I needed. She sought out more science fiction by black authors and found Butler, Charles Saunders, and Steven Barnes. Then the famous feminist science fiction author and editor Judy Merril offered an evening course in writing science fiction through a Toronto college, Hopkinson said. The course never ran, but it prompted me to write my first adult attempt at a science fiction story. Judy met once with the handful of us she would have accepted into the course and showed us how to run our own writing workshop without her. Hopkinsons dream of attending Clarion came true in 1995, with Delany as an instructor. Her early short stories channeled her love of myth and folklore, and her first book, written in Caribbean dialect, married Caribbean myth to the science fictional trappings of black market organ harvesting. Brown Girl in the Ring (1998) follows a young single mother as shes torn between her ancestral culture and modern life in a post-economic collapse Toronto. It won the Aspect and Locus Awards for Best First Novel, and Hopkinson was awarded the John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer.

In 1996, Dolly the Sheep was created using Gurdons technique to determine if mammalian cells also could revert to more a more primitive, pluripotent state. Widespread animal cloning attempts soon followed, (something Hopkinson used as a science fictional element in Brown Girl) but it was inefficient, and often produced abnormal animals. Ideas of human cloning captured the public imagination as stem cell research exploded onto the scene. One ready source for human ESC (hESC) materials was from embryos which would otherwise be destroyed following in vitro fertilization (IVF) but the U.S. passed the Dickey-Wicker Amendment prohibited federal funding of research that destroyed such embryos. Nevertheless, in 1998 Wisconsin researcher James Thomson, using private funding, successfully isolated and cultured hESCs. Soon after, researchers around the world figured out how to nudge cells down different lineages, with ideas that transplant rejection and genetic disease would soon become things of the past, sliding neatly into the hole that the failure of genetic engineering techniques had left behind. But another blow to the stem cell research community came in 2001, when President Bushs stem cell ban limited research in the U.S. to nineteen existing cell lines.

In the late 1990s, another piece of technology capturing the public imagination was the internet, which promised to bring the world together in unprecedented ways. One such way was through private listservs, the kind used by writer and academic Alondra Nelson to create a space for students and artists to explore Afrofuturist ideas about technology, space, freedom, culture and art with science fiction at the center. It was wonderful, Hopkinson said. It gave me a place to talk and debate with like-minded people about the conjunction of blackness and science fiction without being shouted down by white men or having to teach Racism 101. Connections create communities, which in turn create movements, and in 1999, Delanys essay, Racism and Science Fiction, prompted a call for more meaningful discussions around race in the SF community. In response, Hopkinson became a co-founder of the Carl Brandon society, which works to increase awareness and representation of people of color in the community.

Hopkinsons second novel, Robber, was a breakthrough success and was nominated for Hugo, Nebula, and Tiptree Awards. She would also release Skin Folk (2001), a collection of stories in which mythical figures of West African and Afro-Caribbean culture walk among us, which would win the World Fantasy Award and was selected as one ofThe New York Times Best Books of the Year. Hopkinson also obtained masters degree in fiction writing (which helped alleviate U.S. border hassles when traveling for speaking engagements) during which she wrote The Salt Roads (2003). I knew it would take a level of research, focus and concentration I was struggling to maintain, Hopkinson said. I figured it would help to have a mentor to coach me through it. That turned out to be James Morrow, and he did so admirably. Roads is a masterful work of slipstream literary fantasy that follows the lives of women scattered through time, bound together by the salt uniting all black life. It was nominated for a Nebula and won the Gaylactic Spectrum Award. Hopkinson also edited anthologies centering around different cultures and perspectives, including Whispers from the Cotton Tree Root: Caribbean Fabulist Fiction (2000), Mojo: Conjure Stories (2003), and So Long, Been Dreaming: Postcolonial Science Fiction & Fantasy (2004). She also came out with the award-winning novelThe New Moons Arms in 2007, in which a peri-menopausal woman in a fictional Caribbean town is confronted by her past and the changes she must make to keep her family in her life.

While the stem cell ban hamstrung hESC work, Gurdons research facilitated yet another scientific breakthrough. Researchers began untangling how gene expression changed as stem cells differentiated, and in 2006, Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University reported the successful creation of mouse stem cells from differentiated cells. Using a list of 24 pluripotency-associated genes, Yamanaka systematically tested different gene combinations on terminally differentiated cells. He found four genesthereafter known as Yamanaka factorsthat could turn them into induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and he and Gurdon would share a 2012 Nobel prize. In 2009, President Obama lifted restrictions on hESC research, and the first clinical trial involving products made using stem cells happened that year. The first human trials using hESCs to treat spinal injuries happened in 2014, and the first iPSC clinical trials for blindness began this past December.

Hopkinson, too, encountered complications and delays at points in her career. For years, Hopkinson suffered escalating symptoms from fibromyalgia, a chronic disease that runs in her family, which interfered with her writing, causing Hopkinson and her partner to struggle with poverty and homelessness. But in 2011, Hopkinson applied to become a professor of Creative Writing at the University of California, Riverside. It seemed in many ways tailor-made for me, Hopkinson said. They specifically wanted a science fiction writer (unheard of in North American Creative Writing departments); they wanted someone with expertise working with a diverse range of people; they were willing to hire someone without a PhD, if their publications were sufficient; they were offering the security of tenure. She got the job, and thanks to a steady paycheck and the benefits of the mild California climate, she got back to writing. Her YA novel, The Chaos (2012), coming-of-age novelSister Mine (2013), and another short story collection, Falling in Love with Hominids (2015) soon followed. Her recent work includes House of Whispers (2018-present), a series in DC Comics Sandman Universe, the final collected volume of which is due out this June. Hopkinson also received an honorary doctorate in 2016 from Anglia Ruskin University in the U.K., and was Guest of Honor at 2017 Worldcon, a year in which women and people of color dominated the historically white, male ballot.

While the Yamanaka factors meant that iPSCs became a standard lab technique, iPSCs are not identical to hESCs. Fascinatingly, two of these factors act together to maintain the silencing of large swaths of DNA. Back in the 1980s, researchers discovered that some regions of DNA are modified by small methyl groups, which can be passed down through cell division. Different cell types have different DNA methylation patterns, and their distribution is far from random; they accumulate in the promoter regions just upstream of genes where their on/off switches are, and the greater the number of methyl groups, the lesser the genes expression. Furthermore, epigenetic modifications, like methylation, can be laid down by our environments (via diet, or stress) which can also be passed down through generations. Even some diseases, like fibromyalgia, have recently been implicated as such an epigenetic disease. Turns out that the long-standing biological paradigm that rejected Lamarck also missed the bigger picture: Nature is, in fact, intimately informed by nurture and environment.

In the past 150 years, we have seen ideas of community grow and expand as the world became more connected, so that they now encompass the globe. The histories of science fiction and biology are full of stories of pioneers opening new doorsbe they doors of greater representation or greater understanding, or bothand others following. If evolution has taught us anything, its that nature abhors a monoculture, and the universe tends towards diversification; healthy communities are ones which understand that we are not apart from the world, but of it, and that diversity of types, be they cells or perspectives, is a strength.

Kelly Lagor is a scientist by day and a science fiction writer by night. Her work has appeared at and other places, and you can find her tweeting about all kinds of nonsense @klagor

On the Origins of Modern Biology and the Fantastic: Part 18 Nalo Hopkinson and Stem Cell Research -

Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Market Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2026 by Top Manufacturers,Segment Type s,…

Latest Report On Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Market includingMarket Landscape, and Market size, Revenues by players,Revenues by regions,Average prices,Competitive landscape, market Dynamics and industry trends and developments during the forecast period.

The global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment market is broadly analyzed in this report that sheds light on critical aspects such as the vendor landscape, competitive strategies, market dynamics, and regional analysis. The report helps readers to clearly understand the current and future status of the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment market. The research study comes out as a compilation of useful guidelines for players to secure a position of strength in the global market. The authors of the report profile leading companies of the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment market, Also the details about important activities of leading players in the competitive landscape.

Some of the Leading Players in the Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Market are: Sanofi, Bayer, Roche, Pfizer, Allergan, Gilead Sciences, Kubota Pharmaceutical, Alkeus Pharmaceuticals, Astellas Pharma, Ferrer Corporate, etc.

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The report predicts the size of the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment market in terms of value and volume for the forecast period 2020-2026. As per the analysis provided in the report, the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment market is expected to rise at a CAGR of xx % between 2020 and 2026 to reach a valuation of US$ xx million/billion by the end of 2026. In 2020, the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment market attained a valuation of US$_ million/billion. The market researchers deeply analyze the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment industry landscape and the future prospects it is anticipated to create

This publication includes key segmentations of the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment market on the basis of product, application, and geography (country/region). Each segment included in the report is studied in relation to different factors such as consumption, market share, value, growth rate, and production.

The comparative results provided in the report allow readers to understand the difference between players and how they are competing against each other. The research study gives a detailed view of current and future trends and opportunities of the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment market. Market dynamics such as drivers and restraints are explained in the most detailed and easiest manner possible with the use of tables and graphs. Interested parties are expected to find important recommendations to improve their business in the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment market.

Segmental Analysis

The report has classified the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment industry into segments including product type and application. Every segment is evaluated based on growth rate and share. Besides, the analysts have studied the potential regions that may prove rewarding for the Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment manufcaturers in the coming years. The regional analysis includes reliable predictions on value and volume, thereby helping market players to gain deep insights into the overall Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment industry.

Global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Market Segment By Type:

Stem Cell Therapy, Gene Therapy, Others Based

Global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Market Segment By Application:

Hospitals, Eye Clinics, Others

Competitive Landscape

It is important for every market participant to be familiar with the competitive scenario in the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment industry. In order to fulfil the requirements, the industry analysts have evaluated the strategic activities of the competitors to help the key players strengthen their foothold in the market and increase their competitiveness.

Key companies operating in the global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment market include: Sanofi, Bayer, Roche, Pfizer, Allergan, Gilead Sciences, Kubota Pharmaceutical, Alkeus Pharmaceuticals, Astellas Pharma, Ferrer Corporate, etc.

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Table of Contents

1.1 Research Scope1.2 Market Segmentation1.3 Research Objectives1.4 Research Methodology1.4.1 Research Process1.4.2 Data Triangulation1.4.3 Research Approach1.4.4 Base Year1.5 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Impact Will Have a Severe Impact on Global Growth1.5.1 Covid-19 Impact: Global GDP Growth, 2019, 2020 and 2021 Projections1.5.2 Covid-19 Impact: Commodity Prices Indices1.5.3 Covid-19 Impact: Global Major Government Policy1.6 The Covid-19 Impact on Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Industry1.7 COVID-19 Impact: Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Market Trends 2 Global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Market Size Analysis2.1 Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Business Impact Assessment COVID-192.1.1 Global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Market Size, Pre-COVID-19 and Post- COVID-19 Comparison, 2015-20262.2 Global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Market Size 2020-20212.3 COVID-19-Driven Market Dynamics and Factor Analysis2.3.1 Drivers2.3.2 Restraints2.3.3 Opportunities2.3.4 Challenges 3 Quarterly Competitive Assessment, 20203.1 By Players, Global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Market Size, 2019 VS 20203.2 By Players, Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Headquarters and Area Served3.3 Date of Key Players Enter into Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Market3.4 Key Players Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Product Offered3.5 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans 4 Impact of Covid-19 on Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Segments, By Type4.1 Introduction1.4.1 Stem Cell Therapy1.4.2 Gene Therapy1.4.3 Others4.2 By Type, Global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Market Size, 2019-2021 5 Impact of Covid-19 on Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Segments, By Application5.1 Overview5.5.1 Hospitals5.5.2 Eye Clinics5.5.3 Others5.2 By Application, Global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Market Size, 2019-20215.2.1 By Application, Global Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Market Size by Application, 2019-2021 6 Geographic Analysis6.1 Introduction6.2 North America6.2.1 Macroeconomic Indicators of US6.2.2 US6.2.3 Canada6.3 Europe6.3.1 Macroeconomic Indicators of Europe6.3.2 Germany6.3.3 France6.3.4 UK6.3.5 Italy6.4 Asia-Pacific6.4.1 Macroeconomic Indicators of Asia-Pacific6.4.2 China6.4.3 Japan6.4.4 South Korea6.4.5 India6.4.6 ASEAN6.5 Rest of World6.5.1 Latin America6.5.2 Middle East and Africa 7 Company Profiles7.1 Sanofi7.1.1 Sanofi Business Overview7.1.2 Sanofi Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Revenue, 20207.1.3 Sanofi Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Product Introduction7.1.4 Sanofi Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments7.2 Bayer7.2.1 Bayer Business Overview7.2.2 Bayer Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Revenue, 20207.2.3 Bayer Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Product Introduction7.2.4 Bayer Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments7.3 Roche7.3.1 Roche Business Overview7.3.2 Roche Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Revenue, 20207.3.3 Roche Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Product Introduction7.3.4 Roche Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments7.4 Pfizer7.4.1 Pfizer Business Overview7.4.2 Pfizer Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Revenue, 20207.4.3 Pfizer Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Product Introduction7.4.4 Pfizer Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments7.5 Allergan7.5.1 Allergan Business Overview7.5.2 Allergan Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Revenue, 20207.5.3 Allergan Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Product Introduction7.5.4 Allergan Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments7.6 Gilead Sciences7.6.1 Gilead Sciences Business Overview7.6.2 Gilead Sciences Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Revenue, 20207.6.3 Gilead Sciences Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Product Introduction7.6.4 Gilead Sciences Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments7.7 Kubota Pharmaceutical7.7.1 Kubota Pharmaceutical Business Overview7.7.2 Kubota Pharmaceutical Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Revenue, 20207.7.3 Kubota Pharmaceutical Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Product Introduction7.7.4 Kubota Pharmaceutical Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments7.8 Alkeus Pharmaceuticals7.8.1 Alkeus Pharmaceuticals Business Overview7.8.2 Alkeus Pharmaceuticals Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Revenue, 20207.8.3 Alkeus Pharmaceuticals Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Product Introduction7.8.4 Alkeus Pharmaceuticals Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments7.9 Astellas Pharma7.9.1 Astellas Pharma Business Overview7.9.2 Astellas Pharma Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Revenue, 20207.9.3 Astellas Pharma Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Product Introduction7.9.4 Astellas Pharma Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments7.10 Ferrer Corporate7.10.1 Ferrer Corporate Business Overview7.10.2 Ferrer Corporate Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Quarterly Revenue, 20207.10.3 Ferrer Corporate Juvenile Macular Degeneration (Stargardt Disease) Treatment Product Introduction7.10.4 Ferrer Corporate Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments 8 Key Findings 9 Appendix9.1 About US9.2 Disclaimer

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Viracta Therapeutics to Host Key Opinion Leader Call on the Treatment of EBV-Associated Lymphoma – PRNewswire

SAN DIEGO, May 28, 2020 /PRNewswire/ --Viracta Therapeutics, Inc. (the "Company"), a precision oncology company targeting virus-associated malignancies, today announced that it will host a key opinion leader (KOL) call discussing the treatment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma on Friday, June 5th at 12 P.M. Eastern Time.

The call will feature presentations by Key Opinion Leaders Ronald Levy, MD (Stanford University) and Pierluigi Porcu, MD (Thomas Jefferson University), who will discuss the current treatment landscape and unmet medical need in EBV-associated lymphoma. The call will be followed by a question and answer session with Drs. Levy and Porcu. Dial-in and webcast information for the call is shown below.

Dial-in and Webcast Information





Conference ID:



Click Here For Webcast

On the call, Viracta's management team will also provide an update on the clinical development of the company's lead program, nanatinostat in combination with the antiviral valganciclovir as an oral combination therapy in a Phase 2 clinical trial for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphoma.

About the KOLs

Dr. Ronald Levy is a Professor of Medicine and former Chief of the Division of Oncology at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Levy is widely known as a pioneer in the use of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of cancer. His research efforts have focused on the treatment of lymphoma and he played a key role in developing Rituximab, a drug that has revolutionized lymphoma treatment world-wide. Among many other honors, Dr. Levy was a recipient of the King Faisal International Prize in Medicine.Dr. Levy's current research concentrates on the development of therapeutic vaccine approaches for the treatment of lymphoma and other cancers.

Dr. Pierluigi Porcu is a Professor of Medical Oncology and Director of the Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Department of Medical Oncology at Thomas Jefferson University, and a member of the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center (SKCC).Dr. Porcu's Lab at the SKCC is focused on studying the role of the EBV in a subset of T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas, epigenetic mechanisms of T-cell and NK-cell transformation, new targets of therapy in EBV-associated T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas, and predictive biomarkers of response to epigenetic therapy in lymphoma. For the past 10 years, Dr. Porcu has been listed among the U.S. News & World Report's Top Cancer Doctors in America, Newsweek's Top Hematology Doctors, and since moving to Philadelphia he has been on Philadelphia Magazine's Top Doctors list.

About Nanatinostat

Nanatinostat (VRx-3996) is an orally available histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor being developed by Viracta.Nanatinostat is selective for specific isoforms of Class 1 HDACs which is key to inducing latent viral genes in EBV-associated malignancies. The nanatinostat and valganciclovir combination is being investigated in EBV-associated lymphomas in an ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial [NCT03397706].

Viracta has received Fast Track designation from the FDA for the nanatinostat and valganciclovir combination in relapsed/refractory lymphomas, as well as Orphan Drug Designation for the treatment of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, plasmablastic lymphoma, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

About EBV-Associated Cancers

Approximately 95% of the world's adult population is infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Infections are commonly asymptomatic. Following infection, the virus remains latent in a small subset of lymphatic cells for the duration of the patient's life. Under certain circumstances, such cells may undergo malignant transformation and become lymphoma. In addition to lymphomas, EBV is associated with a variety of solid tumors, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric cancer.

About Viracta Therapeutics, Inc.

Viracta is a precision oncology company targeting virus-associated malignancies. The Company's proprietary investigational drug, nanatinostat, is currently being evaluated in combination with the antiviral agent valganciclovir as an oral combination therapy in a Phase 2 clinical trial for Epstein-Barr virus positive lymphomas. Viracta is pursuing application of this Kick and Kill platform approach in other EBV associated malignancies, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma and other viral related cancers.

For additional information please visit

Media and Investor Contact:Joyce AllaireLifeSci Advisors[emailprotected](212) 915-2569

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Viracta Therapeutics to Host Key Opinion Leader Call on the Treatment of EBV-Associated Lymphoma - PRNewswire

Intravenous infusion of human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a potential treatment for patients with COVID-19…

On February 7, 2020, a 54-year-old man presented to Yanggu Peoples Hospital, Shandong, with a 4-day history of cough, chest tightness, and fever. Apart from a 2-year history of diabetes, the patient had no other specific medical history. The physical examination showed a body temperature of 38.0C, blood pressure of 141/87mmHg, and pulse of 81 beats per minute. A blood routine examination was arranged urgently, and throat swabs were collected. The result revealed that the white cell count and absolute lymphocyte count were 7.59109/L (reference range 3.5~9.5109/L) and 0.24109/L (reference range 1.1~3.2109/L), respectively; C-reactive protein (CRP), 59.64mg/L (reference range 0~10mg/L); influenza A and B virus antigen (); and routine anti-inflammation and antivirus therapy were given for supportive treatment.

On February 9, 2020, the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay confirmed that the patients specimen tested positive for COVID-19. Then, the patient was admitted to an airborne isolation unit in Liaocheng Infectious Disease Hospital for clinical observation.

On February 11, 2020, the patient felt severe shortness of breath, and the oxygen saturation values decreased to as low as 87.9%. Related laboratory results showed PH (7.46), PCO2 (26mmHg), PO2 (50mmHg), HCO3 (18.4mmol/L). The doctors decided to change the diagnosis to COVID-19 (critically severe type), and the patient was admitted to the ICU of Liaocheng Peoples Hospital for better treatment.

On February 12, 2020, the shortness of breath even got worse under the oxygen supplementation. The doctor speeded up the oxygen airflow to 45L per minute. Chest computerized tomography (CT) clearly showed evidence of pneumonia and ground-glass opacity, in the right and left lungs (Fig.1A-1A-4). According to the guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 [14], the patient was treated with antiviral therapy of lopinavir/ritonavir, IFN- inhalation, and also intravenous injection of levofloxacin, tanreqing capsule, xuebijing, thymosin 1, methylprednisolone, and immunoglobulin. During this time, the patient received antipyretic therapy. More treatments were conducted consisting of electrocardiograph monitoring, potassium chloride sustained-release tablets (oral, 1g per time, 2 times per day), plasma exchange and regulated intestinal microflora of patient, etc. Finally, the discomfort was released, and the oxygen saturation increased to 98%.

Chest computerized tomography (CT) images of the COVID-19 patient. A-1A-4 On February 12, ground-glass opacity (GGO) and pneumonia infiltration occurred in both the left and right lungs. Several GGO regions in each of the 5 lung lobes, and some with traction bronchiectasis; in the left lower lobe, crazy-paving pattern (GGO with superimposed inter- and intralobular septal thickening) with a few scattered consolidation and vascular dilatation were observed. B-1B-4 CT images on February 22 indicate the symptoms of the patient are slightly relieved, but the pneumonia was still significant. There were reduced regions of initial GGO, with a new area of subpleural consolidation. C-1C-4 Cell transplantation was performed on February 24. On March 1, the pneumonia infiltration faded away very much. Most of the ground-glass opacity lightened, or even disappeared. The partial area of consolidation was still observed

On February 13 to 21, the patients vital physical signs remained largely stable, apart from the development of intermittent fevers and shortness of breath.

On February 22, the patient took a turn for the worse (Fig.1B-1B-4). Considering the severe organ injury caused by an inflammatory response, hWJC adoptive transfer therapy was proposed under the advice and guidance of the specialist group. The family member and patient agreed to try hWJC adoptive transfer therapy. The therapeutic scheme was then discussed and approved by the ethics committee of the hospital, and consent forms were signed by the family member before the therapy. On February 24, the patient receives hWJC transfusion.

On March 1, the patient felt much better. The shortness of breath was significantly recovering. The CRP decreased to 27.2g/L, the absolute lymphocyte count rose to 0.66109/L, and the inflammatory factors reduced to normal levels, which indicated that the patient was recovering rapidly. On March 2, the patient meets the discharge standard, and the medical observation is canceled

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Intravenous infusion of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a potential treatment for patients with COVID-19...

Shanghai Cell Therapy Group Launches Collaboration with USC researcher to Improve the ex vivo Expansion of Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Clinical…

SHANGHAI, May27, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Shanghai Cell Therapy Group (SHCell) recently entered intoa six-year research collaborative project with Professor Qi-Long Ying from the University of Southern California (USC). Through the project, sponsored by $3.6 million from the Baize Plan Fund, the Ying laboratory aims to develop conditions for the long-term ex vivo expansion of mouse and human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

"Hematopoietic stem cells, or HSCs, are found in the bone marrow of adults," said Professor Qijun Qian, CEO of Shanghai Cell Therapy Group. "HSCs have the ability for long-term self-renewal and differentiation into various types of mature blood cells, and for rebuilding normal hematopoiesis and immune function in patients. They also have enormous potential to treat diseases, including tumors, autoimmune diseases, severe infectious disease, and inherited blood diseases, and to combat the effects of aging."

This research project will be conducted and supervised by Professor Qi-Long Ying, a Professor of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. Professor Ying's pioneering stem cell research has won international acclaim, including the 2016 McEwen Award for Innovation, the highest honor in the field.

"We'll develop and optimize culture conditions for the long-term ex vivo expansion of HSCs," said Professor Ying. "We'll also test combinations of basal media, small molecules, cytokines and growth factors, and characterize ex vivo expanded hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. These cells will then be genetically modified and tested for their potential to treat different diseases, including blood disorders and cancers."

Professor Andrew P. McMahon, Director of Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research of USC, added: "Stem cell biology represents an exciting area in medicine with great therapeutic potential. I am delighted SHCell is supporting Professor Ying. A breakthrough in the ability to propagate and manipulate HSCs will have lasting clinical significance."

The project also plans to build animal models of different blood diseases and cancers and test the safety and effectiveness of genetically modified hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells before clinical translation. SHCell will actively explore clinical applications of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the treatment of cancers or blood diseases.

As SHCell's first overseas collaboration, this project aims to advance the goals of the Baize Plan: to provide first-class cell treatments and cell therapies at an affordable price to cure cancer and increase life expectancy. SHCell hopes that this project will also accelerate original scientific breakthroughs in the stem cell field.

Shanghai Cell Therapy Group

Founded in 2013, Shanghai Cell Therapeutics Group Co., Ltd is located at the Shanghai Municipal Engineering and Technology Research Center, which was established by the Shanghai Science and Technology Commission. With a mission of "changing the length and abundance of life with cell therapy", SHCell has created a closed-loop industrial chain and an integrated platform for cell treatment and cell therapy. It comprises cell storage, cell drug research and cell clinical transformation with cell therapy as its core business.

The Baize Plan was proposed in 2016 by Wu Mengchao, an Academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and initiated by Professor Qian, aiming to provide first-class cell treatments and cell therapies at an affordable price with the goal of curing cancers and increasing life expectancy. The Baize Plan Fund was created by the Shanghai Cell Therapy Group to realize the vision of the Baize Plan.

University of Southern California (USC)

Founded in 1880, the University of Southern California is one of the world's leading educational and research institutions, and also the oldest private research university in California. Located in the heart of Los Angeles, the University of Southern California comprises 23 schools and units, and students are encouraged to explore different fields of study. The University of Southern California ranked #22 in National Universities in the 2020 edition of Best Colleges, published by U.S. News & World Report.

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SOURCE Shanghai Cell Therapy Group

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Shanghai Cell Therapy Group Launches Collaboration with USC researcher to Improve the ex vivo Expansion of Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Clinical...