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Stem Cell Media Market 2019| Recent Trends, In-depth Analysis, Market Size Research Report Forecast up to 2026 | Research Industry US – News Obtain

Global Stem Cell Media market report is the first of its kind research report that covers the overview, market dynamics, competitive analysis, and leading players numerous strategies to sustain in the global market. This report covers five top regions of the world and countries within, which shows the status of regional development, consisting of volume, size, market value, and price data.

The report takes a dashboard view of an entire Stem Cell Media market by comprehensively analyzing market circumstance and situation and the various activities of leading players in the market such as mergers, partnerships, and acquisitions. This unique report explains the present industry situations that give the crystal-clear picture of the global Stem Cell Media market to the clients.

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Market Segmentation

Key players considered in the report include

Thermo FisherSTEMCELL TechnologiesMerck MilliporeLonzaGE HealthcareMiltenyi BiotecCorningCellGenixTakaraPromoCell

On the basis of types, the global Stem Cell Media market is primarily split into

Pluripotent Stem Cell CultureHematopoietic Stem Cell CultureMesenchymal Stem Cell CultureOther

Based on application, the global Stem Cell Media market is primarily split into

Scientific ResearchIndustrial Production

Some of the significant factors such as marketing strategy, factor analysis, cost analysis, industrial chain, distributors and sourcing strategy are included in this report which makes it an exclusive one. The report on the global Stem Cell Media market report is compiled by industry experts and properly examined which will highlight the key information required by the clients.

Regional Analysis

A unit of the report has given comprehensive information about regional analysis. It provides a market outlook and sets the forecast within the context of the overall global Stem Cell Media market. Research Industry US has segmented the global Stem Cell Media market into major geographical regions such as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, and the Middle East and Africa (MEA). Potential new entrants wishing to target only high growth areas are also included in this informative section of the global Stem Cell Media market.

Based on geography, the global Stem Cell Media market is divided into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, and The Middle East & Africa. North America is further divided in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico, whereas Europe consists of the UK, Germany, France, Italy, and Rest of Europe. India, China, Japan, South Korea, and Rest of Asia-Pacific are the categorization of the Asia-Pacific region. The South America region includes Brazil, Argentina, and the Rest of South America, while The Middle East & Africa is categorized into GCC Countries, Egypt, South Africa, and the Rest of the Middle East & Africa.

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Stem Cell Media Market 2019| Recent Trends, In-depth Analysis, Market Size Research Report Forecast up to 2026 | Research Industry US - News Obtain

International Stem Cell Corporation Announces Financial Results for the Three and Nine-Months ended September 30, 2019 – Yahoo Finance

CARLSBAD, CA / ACCESSWIRE / November 15, 2019 / International Stem Cell Corporation (ISCO) ( ("ISCO" or "the Company"), a California-based clinical stage biotechnology company developing novel stem cell-based therapies and biomedical products, today announced operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019.

"As we mentioned before we completed the enrollment of the Phase I Parkinson's disease clinical trial and currently involved in reorganizing our revenue-generating subsidiaries. We expect that we will see positive results of this reorganization next year." - commented Andrey Semechkin, PhD., CEO and Co-Chairman of ISCO.

Year-to-Date Financial Highlights

About International Stem Cell Corporation

International Stem Cell Corporation is focused on the therapeutic applications of human parthenogenetic stem cells (hpSCs) and the development and commercialization of cell-based research and cosmetic products. ISCO's core technology, parthenogenesis, results in the creation of pluripotent human stem cells from unfertilized oocytes (eggs). hpSCs avoid ethical issues associated with the use or destruction of viable human embryos. ISCO scientists have created the first parthenogenetic, homozygous stem cell line that can be a source of therapeutic cells for hundreds of millions of individuals of differing genders, ages and racial background with minimal immune rejection after transplantation. hpSCs offer the potential to create the first true stem cell bank, UniStemCell. ISCO also produces and markets specialized cells and growth media for therapeutic research worldwide through its subsidiary Lifeline Cell Technology (, and stem cell-based skin care products through its subsidiary Lifeline Skin Care ( More information is available at

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Safe Harbor Statement

Statements pertaining to anticipated developments, expected results of clinical studies, progress of research and development, and other opportunities for the company and its subsidiaries, along with other statements about the future expectations, beliefs, goals, plans, or prospects expressed by management constitute forward-looking statements. Any statements that are not historical fact (including, but not limited to statements that contain words such as "will," "believes," "plans," "anticipates," "expects," "estimates,") should also be considered to be forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation, risks inherent in the development and/or commercialization of potential products, regulatory approvals, need and ability to obtain future capital, application of capital resources among competing uses, and maintenance of intellectual property rights. Actual results may differ materially from the results anticipated in these forward-looking statements and as such should be evaluated together with the many uncertainties that affect the company's business, particularly those mentioned in the cautionary statements found in the company's Securities and Exchange Commission filings. The company disclaims any intent or obligation to update forward-looking statements.

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International Stem Cell Corporation and SubsidiariesCondensed Consolidated Balance Sheets(in thousands, except share data and par value)(Unaudited)



Accounts receivable, net

Inventory, net

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

Total current assets

Non-current inventory

Property and equipment, net

Intangible assets, net

Right-of-use assets

Deposits and other assets

Total assets

Liabilities, Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock, and Stockholders' Equity (Deficit)

Accounts payable

Accrued liabilities

Operating lease liabilities, current

Related party payable


Warrant liability

Total current liabilities

Long-term deferred rent

Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion

Total liabilities

Commitments and Contingencies

Series D Redeemable Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 50 shares authorized, 43 issued and

outstanding, with liquidation preference of $4,300 at September 30, 2019

Stockholders' Equity (Deficit)

Series B Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized, 250,000

issued and outstanding, with liquidation preferences of $423 and $411 at September 30, 2019 and

December 31, 2018

Series D Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 50 shares authorized, 43 issued and

outstanding, with liquidation preference of $4,300 at December 31, 2018

Series G Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized, issued and

outstanding, with liquidation preference of $5,000 at September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018

Series I-1 Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 2,000 shares authorized, 814 issued and

outstanding, with liquidation preferences of $814 at September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018

Series I-2 Convertible Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 4,310 shares authorized,

issued and outstanding with liquidation preference of $4,310 at September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018

Common stock, $0.001 par value, 120,000,000 shares authorized, 7,533,083 and 6,933,861 shares

issued and outstanding at September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018

Additional paid-in capital

Accumulated deficit

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)

Total liabilities, redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders' equity (deficit)

International Stem Cell Corporation and SubsidiariesCondensed Consolidated Statements of Operations(in thousands, except per share data)(Unaudited)


Product sales

Total revenues


Cost of sales

Research and development

Selling and marketing

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Total expenses

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International Stem Cell CorporationRussell A. Kern, PhDPhone: 760-940-6383Email:

SOURCE: International Stem Cell CORP

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International Stem Cell Corporation Announces Financial Results for the Three and Nine-Months ended September 30, 2019 - Yahoo Finance

Quality of Life With Busulfan and Fludarabine Compared With Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide – Hematology Advisor

Myeloablative conditioning with busulfan and fludarabine (bu/flu) may produce similar clinical outcomes and quality of life (QOL) compared with conditioning with busulfan and cyclophosphamide (bu/cy) for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), according to research published in Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy.

Although bu/cy and bu/flu are both standard myeloablative conditioning regimens for alloHCT, they have not yet been studied with a focus on quality of life. Researchers conducted a single center, retrospective analysis of adult patients who received a first T-cell-replete human leukocyte antigen-8/8 matched related or unrelated donor alloHCT. The study included 126 patients with AML and 84 patients with MDS. All patients were 18 years or older and were treated between 2008 and 2017.

Quality of life was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant Scale (FACT-BMT) questionnaire.

The researchers found no significant differences in FACT-BMT scores between patients receiving bu/cy and patients receiving bu/flu in both the AML and MDS cohorts. No significant difference was found to for mucositis severity either.

When patients with AML were analyzed separately, the researchers found that those receiving bu/flu had more rapid neutrophil and platelet recovery compared with patients receiving bu/cy, as well as a shorter median hospital stay. No differences were found in other post-transplant outcomes.

In the MDS cohort, the researchers found that patients receiving bu/flu had more rapid platelet recovery and a shorter median hospital stay as well as greater risk for cytomegalovirus infection compared with patients receiving bu/cy. However, patients receiving bu/flu experienced decreased risk for nonrelapse mortality. There were no significant differences in other outcomes.

Previous studies examining these 2 regimens have found no differences regarding hematopoietic engraftment kinetics, risk for grade 3 or 4 mucositis, graft-versus-host disease, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality. The current study suggests quality of life may also be similar between the regimens. Future formal cost-effectiveness analyses of these regimens would be appropriate to better assess the implications for resource utilization, wrote the authors.


1. Patel SS, Rybicki L, Pohlman B, et al. Comparative effectiveness of busulfan/cyclophosphamide versus busulfan/fludarabine myeloablative conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome [published online October 11, 2019]. doi:10.1016/j.hemonc.2019.09.002

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Quality of Life With Busulfan and Fludarabine Compared With Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide - Hematology Advisor

Bioethics Coming to Elementary and High Schools? – Discovery Institute

Bioethicist Jacob M. Appel wants the bioethics movement to educate your children about the policy and personal conundrums that involve medical care and health public policy. He claims that most of us give little thought to issues that may arise, such as end-of-life care and prenatal screening. Then, when an issue does come up, people are unprepared to make wise and informed decisions.

From, The Silent Crisis of Bioethics Illiteracy, published in Scientific American:

Change will only occur when bioethics is broadly incorporated into school curricula [at an early age] and when our nations thought leaders begin to place emphasis on the importance of reflecting meaningfully in advance upon these issues

Often merely recognizing such issues in advance is winning the greater part of the battle. Just as we teach calculus and poetry while recognizing that most students are unlikely to become mathematicians or bards, bioethics education offers a versatile skill set that can be applied to issues well outside the scientific arena. At present, bioethics is taught sporadically at various levels, but not with frequency, and even obtaining comprehensive data on its prevalence is daunting.

Is this really an appropriate field for children? Consider the issues with which bioethics grapples and whether elementary-, middle-, and high-school children have the maturity to grapple with them in a meaningful and deliberative way (not to mention, the acute potential that teachers will push their students in particular ideological directions):

Even if some students are mature enough to grapple with these issues thoughtfully, the next problem is that bioethics is extremely contentious and wholly subjective. Its not science, but focuses on questions of philosophy, morality, ideology, religion, etc.. Moreover, there is a dominant point-of-view among the most prominent voices in the field e.g., those who teach at leading universities and would presumably be tasked with writing the educational texts. These perspectives would unquestionably often stand in opposition to the moral values taught young students by their parents.

Appel is typical of the genus (if you will). He has called for paying women who plan to abort to gestate longer in their pregnancy so that more dead fetuses will be available sufficiently developed to be harvested for organs and used in experiments. He advocates mandatory termination of care for patients who are diagnosed as persistently unconscious to save resources for what he considers more important uses. He has also supported assisted suicide for the mentally ill.

Indeed, activists without a modifier like Catholic or pro-life before the term bioethicist are overwhelmingly very liberal politically and intensely secular in their approach. Most support an almost unlimited right to abortion, the legalization of assisted suicide, genetic engineering (once safe), and accept distinguishing between human beings and persons, that is, they deny universal human equality.

Some wish to repeal the dead donor rule that requires organ donors to be dead before their body parts are extracted an idea that admittedly remains somewhat controversial in the field. Most mainstream bioethicists deny the sanctity of human life and many think that an animal with a greater cognitive capacity has greater value than a human being with lower cognition. Add in the sectors general utilitarianish approach to health-care issues, such as supporting rationing, and the potential for propagandizing becomes clear.

With such opinions, often passionately held, how long would it be before early bioethics education devolved into rank proselytizing? But Wesley, Appel might say, the classes would be objective! Every side would be given equal and a respectful and accurate presentation.

Sure. If you believe that, you must think current sex education curricula and high school classes in social justice present all sides of those issues dispassionately and without attempt to persuade the students to particular points of view and cultural perspectives.

I have a deal for Appel: In-depth courses in bioethics should not be taught before college unless I get to write the textbooks! I promise to be objective and fairly present all sides. Honest!

Do you think he and his mainstream colleagues would approve of that deal?

Neither do I. And we shouldnt go along with his idea for the very same reason.

Photo credit:cherylt23 viaPixabay.

Cross-posted at The Corner.

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Bioethics Coming to Elementary and High Schools? - Discovery Institute

‘Dr. Death’ and ‘Bad Batch’ Host Laura Beil on the Future of Podcasts –

Laura Beil was skeptical when Wondery called her two years ago. The sensationalistic podcast hitmaker behind Dirty John needed a host for its new series about Christopher Duntsch, the infamous Dallas neurosurgeon accused of maiming his patients. Beil, a veteran Dallas Morning News medical reporter, hadn't listened to a true crime podcast in full, let alone reported one. She'd certainly never heard of Wondery. "I said, 'I'm a print journalist,'" she tells "Why are you calling me?" With some hesitation, she agreed to do it. Today, she's grateful she did.

Since airing last September, Dr. Death has been downloaded more than 50 million times and ordered as a television series. On the heels of its massive success, Wondery greenlit a second Beil-led podcast, Bad Batch, now available on Apple Podcasts and Spotify. In the six-part investigative series, she takes listeners through the crazy, complicated world of stem cell medical treatment. Like Dr. Death, there's a narrative arc (corrupt system, suspicious CEO, unsuspecting victims); unlike Dr. Death, she says, it serves a real purpose. "The chances of you coming across a horrible neurosurgeon are pretty slim," she says, "but the chances of you or someone you love wanting to spend a bunch of money on stem cells because you're promised a miracle cure? That's much higher. This has a greater chance of having an impact on listeners."

Bad Batch has already garnered 3 million listeners since it debuted three weeks ago, and is now the fourth most popular show on Apple podcasts, ahead of rival My Favorite Murder.

On the phone, Beil and I discuss her transition to audio from print journalism, the future of true crime content in a frenetic digital age, and her secret sauce to producing a hit podcast.

Apparently a Dirty John listener had emailed Wondery saying, "Hey, have you heard of Christopher Duntsch?" They wanted a journalist who had knowledge of the healthcare system in Dallas, where Duntsch practiced, to look into him, and that's a pretty short list. When they called, I hadn't even heard of Wondery. But I decided to take a chance on it.

Journalism is journalism. There are some things I had to get used to, of course. For example, in print journalism, if you need something else, you can go back and get it from a source. You'll email or you'll text somebody to follow up as you find out you need more details. With audio, you just have one shot. It's a lot harder to go back and reinterview someone. You have to make the one interview really count, and that means asking the same question over and over again in a different way, to get details that draw people out. It's something that I'm still learning how to do, frankly.

The feedback about my voice has been all over the place. I didn't get so much with Dr. Death, but for Bad Batch I am. Listeners will say, "Oh, the narrator's too dramatic." And then someone else will say, "Oh, the narrator's too robotic." It's all conflicting. My favorite bit of feedback was from a listener who said they preferred the host of Dr. Death to Bad Batch.

I don't see true crime being dethroned anytime soon. It will always dominate, because people love it. That said, Bad Batch doesn't necessarily fit in the true crime box. There wasn't really a crime, and nobody died. What you need, just like in a print piece, is a good central narrative to hang your story off. The stem cell story is complicated, because you can't just say it's all a big con job. There's legitimate stem cell research going on. The business is growing so much and most of the information about it is coming from people trying to sell it. There's a lot to explore and explain.

In this business, so much is contracting, like newspapers, so it's nice to see one aspect of journalism that's expanding. To see more demand for audio journalism is heartening. It's reviving a lot of the long-form storytelling that's been cut in other places. Dr. Death had 50 million downloads. The same story was told in print on ProPublica, which is a hugely popular website, and yet the response from our audio was so much greater. A lot of things that we're told people want nowadaysshorter stories that are more clickable and scannablewell, you can't do that with a podcast. I can't explain it, but people can't get enough of podcasts.

I do enjoy doing the audio stuff, but I have to say, in my heart of hearts, I'm still a print writer. If I had to give up one or the other, I'd give up the audio.

[Laughs] With two number one podcasts out in a row, Wondery is like, "Do you have anything else?" After Dr. Death, I had so many emails from people saying, "Here's another horrible doctor to look into." It was depressing. I don't want to do another bad doctor story, I want to do something completely different. I want it to be the right story. It'll be something medical of course.

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'Dr. Death' and 'Bad Batch' Host Laura Beil on the Future of Podcasts -

Leading Alternative Healing Director of Total Health Institute Reviews and Receives 3rd Fellowship in Stem Cell Therapy – GlobeNewswire

Chicago, IL, Nov. 14, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Dr. Keith Nemec the clinic director ofTotal Health Institute in Chicago has received yet another fellowship in his advanced research. Most recently Dr. Nemec received his fellowship in Stem Cell Therapy to add to his other fellowships in Regenerative Medicine and Integrative Cancer Therapies.

Dr. Nemec has overseen patient care for the last thirty-five years at Total Health Institute which is an alternative and integrative medical facility. Total Health Institute has seen over 10,000 patients who have traveled from around the world to seek Dr. Nemecs guidance in their healing journey.

Total Health Institute uses unique approach developed by Dr. Nemec called theSystems Sequence Approach to balance cellular communication between the cells, tissues, organs, glands and systems of the body. Dr. Nemec explains It is like knowing the combination to open the lock to complete healing. To open this lock, you must not only know the right systems to balance but also in the right sequence.

Dr. Keith Nemec is very excited about the research in stem cells and stem cell therapy that is why he focused his concentration in this area. According to Dr. Nemec All health and healing starts at the stem cell level. Whether a person has cancer, autoimmune disease or chronic diseases of aging they are all involving stem cells. In cancer, an inflammatory environment has mutated a normal stem cell into a cancer stem cell which is not killed with either chemotherapy nor radiation. This is why many times with conventional cancer treatment alone one tends to see improvements for a season but then return the cancer stem cell retaliates with a vengeance. Dr. Nemec also states Since all cells come from a base stem cell then the answer to all chronic disease can be found in activating the stem cells to produce an anti-inflammatory niche and continual healthy cell renewal.

Dr. Nemec is a member of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine which is the largest and most prestigious group of Regenerative and Anti-Aging Medicine doctors in the world. He received his masters degree in Nutritional Medicine from Morsani College of Medicine. He has also published 5 books including: The Perfect Diet, The Environment of Health and Disease, Seven Basic Steps to Total Health and Total Health = Wholeness. Dr. Nemec has also published numerous health articles including: The Single Unifying Cause of All Disease and The answer to cancer is found in the stem cell and for 18 years he hosted the radio show Your Total Health in Chicago AM1160.

Total Health Institute boasts all 5 starreviews on RateMDs, an A+ rating onBBBand is top rated on Manta.

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Leading Alternative Healing Director of Total Health Institute Reviews and Receives 3rd Fellowship in Stem Cell Therapy - GlobeNewswire

NIST researchers use artificial intelligence for quality control of stem cell-derived tissues – National Institutes of Health

News Release

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Technique key to scale up manufacturing of therapies from induced pluripotent stem cells.

Researchers used artificial intelligence (AI) to evaluate stem cell-derived patches of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tissue for implanting into the eyes of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness.

The proof-of-principle study helps pave the way for AI-based quality control of therapeutic cells and tissues. The method was developed by researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and is described in a report appearing online today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. NEI is part of the National Institutes of Health.

This AI-based method of validating stem cell-derived tissues is a significant improvement over conventional assays, which are low-yield, expensive, and require a trained user, said Kapil Bharti, Ph.D., a senior investigator in the NEI Ocular and Stem Cell Translational Research Section.

Our approach will help scale up manufacturing and will speed delivery of tissues to the clinic, added Bharti, who led the research along with Carl Simon Jr., Ph.D., and Peter Bajcsy, Ph.D., of NIST.

Cells of the RPE nourish the light-sensing photoreceptors in the eye and are among the first to die from geographic atrophy, commonly known as dry AMD. Photoreceptors die without the RPE, resulting in vision loss and blindness.

Bhartis team is working on a technique for making RPE replacement patches from AMD patients own cells. Patient blood cells are coaxed in the lab to become induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs), which can become any type of cell in the body. The IPS cells are then seeded onto a biodegradable scaffold where they are induced to differentiate into mature RPE. The scaffold-RPE patch is implanted in the back of the eye, behind the retina, to rescue photoreceptors and preserve vision.

The patch successfully preserved vision in an animal model, and a clinical trial is planned.

The researchers AI-based validation method employed deep neural networks, an AI technique that performs mathematical computations aimed at detecting patterns in unlabeled and unstructured data. The algorithm operated on images of the RPE obtained using quantitative bright-field absorbance microscopy. The networks were trained to identify visual indications of RPE maturation that correlated with positive RPE function.

Those single-cell visual characteristics were then fed into traditional machine-learning algorithms, which in turn helped the computers learn to detect discrete cell features crucial to the prediction of RPE tissue function.

The method was validated using stem cell-derived RPE from a healthy donor. Its effectiveness was then tested by comparing iPSC-RPE derived from healthy donors with iPSC-RPE from donors with oculocutaneous albinism disorder and with clinical-grade stem cell-derived RPE from donors with AMD.

In particular, the AI-based image analysis method accurately detected known markers of RPE maturity and function: transepithelial resistance, a measure of the junctions between neighboring RPE; and secretion of endothelial growth factors. The method also can match a particular iPSC-RPE tissue sample to other samples from the same donor, which helps confirm the identity of tissues during clinical-grade manufacturing.

Multiple AI-methods and advanced hardware allowed us to analyzeterabytesandterabytesof imaging data for each individual patient, and do it more accurately and much faster than in the past, Bajcsy said.

This work demonstrates how a garden variety microscope, if used carefully, can make a precise, reproducible measurement of tissue quality,Simon said.

The work was supported by the NEI Intramural Research Program and the Common Fund Therapeutics Challenge Award. The flow cytometry core, led by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, also contributed to the research.

NEI leads the federal governments research on the visual system and eye diseases. NEI supports basic and clinical science programs to develop sight-saving treatments and address special needs of people with vision loss. For more information, visit

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH):NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit

NIHTurning Discovery Into Health

Schaub NJ, Hotaling NA, Manescu P, Padi S, Wan Q, Sharma R, George A, Chalfoun J, Simon M, Ouladi M, Simon CG, Bajcsy P, Bharti K. Deep learning predicts function of live retinal pigment epithelium from quantitative microscopy. In-press preview published online November 14, 2019 in J. Clin. Investigation.


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NIST researchers use artificial intelligence for quality control of stem cell-derived tissues - National Institutes of Health

Modeling the early development of a primate embryo – Science Magazine

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Modeling the early development of a primate embryo - Science Magazine

BREAKTHROUGH: Her vision was getting worse, then animal research made things clear – Speaking of Research

By Justin A. Varholick, Ph.D.

As we grow older theres an impending fear that we will slowly, but surely, begin to lose our vision. This slow loss of vision is clinically dubbed low vision and impacts more than 39 million Americans, costs $68 billion annually in direct health care costs, and is only growing in our population as baby boomers enter the at-risk age of 65 and older. Magnifiers can often be used to help people with acute issues of low vision, but are often inconvenient and frustrating. More serious issues of low vision such as cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy require advanced treatment and surgery. For example, cataracts can be improved or reversed by removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial one. Such surgeries are not always ideal, or convenient, and further contribute to the already hefty direct health care costs. But, a recent breakthrough by Japanese scientists, in correcting blurry vision, might reverse this bleak future.

Old cells can become new againOur story begins around the mid-20th century, in 1958. A young and aspiring scientist, named John Gurdon, was studying frogs at the University of Oxford in England. Not everyone thought Gurdon would end up actually becoming a scientist. In his early days his school master thought such a career was far-fetched for Gurdon. Indeed, he ranked last in his Biology class out of 250 students. Yet despite such poor grades, Gurdon found himself studying frogs at Oxford and earning a doctoral degree in Biology. And his studies would surprisingly lead to a breakthrough in vision, and likely many other issues in human health, like Parkinsons Disease, heart disease, and spinal cord injury.

At the time Gurdon was trying to test an age-old theory on cell development. Many scientists before him discovered that cells the smallest unit of life begin without a clear fate in the early stages of an embryo. Then as the cell develops, their fate becomes more clear. They become cells of the heart, of the brain, the kidneys, the stomach, the spinal cord, or the eyes. But they cannot go back to a time when they had no fate, or specialization. The cells can only develop in one direction, from no destiny, to a clear path, then to a mature adult cell; like one found in the heart. But you just cant take a heart cell and start the process over, maybe turning it into a brain cell.

In disagreement with this theory, Gurdon did a simple experiment. He knew that a tadpole has more adult cells than a frog egg. A tadpole has gills, a heart, eyes, etc., while a frog egg simply does not. So, he cut open the tadpole and removed a single cell from the intestine; an intestinal cell. He then cut open the intestinal cell and removed its nucleus; the seed of the cell carrying all the DNA. Very carefully, he did the same with the frog egg, and finally replaced the nucleus of the frog egg with the nucleus of the intestinal cell. According to the age-old theory, the intestinal nucleus should stop normal development of the frog egg. But thats not what happened.

Instead, the new frog egg continued to develop normally, becoming a tadpole that later became an adult frog. Gurdon thought this was unbelievably odd, and so did everyone else in science. After many more experiments doing the exact same procedure (i.e., replication), it seemed that what he saw was a real, replicable fact. For some reason the nucleus of the intestinal cell was able to reverse itself to have no fate and slowly develop into any other adult cell. The seed from the intestine somehow could become the seed of a heart, brain, kidney, or even an eye cell and of course, an intestinal cell too.

After many more experiments testing the same theory, on many more animals, it seemed the theory was true, but it just didnt work for mammals. Given that the same effect could not be repeated in a mammal, some believed this discovery did not apply to humans. But they were wrong.

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cellsAlmost 45 years later, around the start of the millennium, Shinya Yamanaka and Kazutoshi Takahashi began running experiments that would translate Gurdons findings to humans. Born after Gurdons findings were already published and well known, Yamanaka and Takahashi grew up in a world in which the fact that old cells can become new again was widely knowna solid foundation for further hypotheses, experiments, and discovery. So, the scientists set out to do what no one had before: turn adult skin cells of mice into new cells without a clear fate.

Yamanaka, the lead investigator of the study, shared a similar early history with Gurdon. He first became a medical doctor in Japan but was frustrated by his inability to quickly remove small human tumors taking over an hour rather than the typical 10 minutes. Senior doctors gave him the nickname Jamanaka, a Japanese pun for the word jama meaning obstacle. He then found himself earning a PhD in pharmacology and becoming a post-doctoral scientist, but spent more time caring for mice than doing actual research. Frustrated again, his wife suggested he just become a practicing physician. Despite her advice, Yamanaka applied to become an Assistant Professor at Nara Institute of Science and Technology, in Japan, and won everyone over with his fantastical ideas of investigating embryonic stem cells; the cells without a clear fate.

Then the persistence paid off when Yamanaka with his assistant, Takahashi discovered how to induce adult skin cells from mice to return to an embryonic, or stem cell, state without a clear fate. They began their experiments knowing that gene transcription factors proteins that turn genes on and off were responsible for keeping embryonic cells in a state without a clear fate. They thought that by turning specific genes on and off with these factors, they could turn back time and make an adult cell embryonic again. So, they tried many different combinations of gene transcription factors and ultimately discovered that 4 specific ones were enough to induce an adult skin cell to a mouse to become an embryonic cell. Because these re-newed embryonic cells, or stem cells, originally came from adult cells they came up with a new name, induced pluripotent stem cell. Broken down, induced pluripotent stem cells means that the cell was induced to become pluripotent pluri meaning several, like plural, and potent meaning very powerful (and stem meaning to have the ability to turn into any cell in the body).

These induced pluripotent cells were thought to be very powerful indeed and scientists across the globe were excited by this great discovery. They had visions of taking a persons skin or blood, forming them into induced pluripotent cells, and then using them to grow a new liver or new parts of the brain. Laboratories across the world confirmed the results by repeating the experiment.

Human stem cells Just repeating the experiments in mice, or frogs, was not enough. They needed to begin making induced pluripotent stem cells from humans. Enter scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The lead scientist, James Thomson was already well known for deriving primate embryonic cells from rhesus monkeys in 1995 and the first human embryonic cell line in 1998. In fact, Thomsons accomplishment of isolating embryonic cells from monkeys was the first sound evidence that it was possible to do the same for humans. Such discoveries placed him on the forefront in ethical considerations for research using human embryos and the most obvious scientist to lead the path toward making induced pluripotent stem cells from humans.

Thomsons team made the first human derived induced pluripotent stem cells from adult skin, with Yamanaka as a co-scientist. They followed the same general principles set by Yamanaka, who did the procedure with mouse skin cells. Importantly to Thomson, this discovery helped to relieve some ethical controversy with using human embryos to make human stem cells. By being able to induce adult human skin to become pluripotent stem cells, much research on human stem cells could be done without human embryos albeit research with human embryos remains necessary.

Yet more important to the discussion at hand, the ability to induce human skin to become pluripotent stem cells placed us on the edge of a breakthrough. With some clinical trials in humans, the fantasy of growing a new liver, heart, or eye was more a reality than ever before.

The start of human trials In 2012, around the time both Gurdon and Yamanaka were presented with the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for their work leading to induced pluripotent stem cells, human clinical trials were beginning in Japan. The first clinical trial was for age-related macular degeneration, an eye condition leading to blindness. Unfortunately, this trial was quickly terminated when Yamanaka and his team identified small gene mutations in the transplanted induced pluripotent stem cells from the first patient. Although the procedure did cure the patient of macular degeneration, these small gene mutations worried the scientists because they could lead to tumor development.

But recently with the introduction of an inducible suicide gene that can signal cells with abnormal growth to die, human trials are starting up again. In October of 2018, Japanese scientists began trials with Parkinsons disease, a brain disease related to a shortage of neurons producing dopamine. Scientists took cells from the patients, made them into induced pluripotent stem cells, guided them to develop into dopamine producing cells, and then deposited them in the dopamine centers of the brain through surgery. The outcome is promising since similar procedures in monkeys have been successful.

Other trials in Japan have also started, including spinal cord injury and one for replacing the cornea of the eye. Early results replacing damaged corneas with induced pluripotent stem cells, thereby correcting blurry vision, were just announced at the end of August. Although it will take more patients and safety checks before all humans can get induced pluripotent cells to correct their damaged eyes, malfunctioning brains, or broken spinal cords, Takahashi the post-doctoral scientist working with Yamanaka thinks it might happen as early as 2023. So, it looks like that in our lifetime we just might be able to stay young and enjoy retirement because of great breakthroughs in animal research.Note, EuroStemCell is a great resource for learning more about the ethics and research currently being done with stem cells derived from human embryos.

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BREAKTHROUGH: Her vision was getting worse, then animal research made things clear - Speaking of Research

Stem Cell Therapy Market To Increase Exponentially During 2018 2025 – Downey Magazine

Stem cells are most vital cells found in both humans and non-human animals. Stem cells are also known as centerpiece of regenerative medicine. Regenerative medicines have capability to grow new cells and replace damaged and dead cells. Stem cell is the precursors of all cells in the human body. It has the ability to replicate itself and repair and replace other damaged tissues in the human body. In addition, stem cell based therapies are used in the treatment of several chronic diseases such as cancer and blood disorders.

The globalstem cell therapy marketis categorized based on various modes of treatment and by therapeutic applications. The treatment segment is further sub-segmented into autologous stem cell therapy and allogeneic stem cell therapy. The application segment includes metabolic diseases, eye diseases, immune system diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular diseases and wounds and injuries.

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Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Treatments:

Allogeneic Stem Cell TherapyAutologous Stem Cell Therapy

Stem Cell Therapy Market, By End Users:

HospitalsAmbulatory Surgical Centers

Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Application:

OncologyCentral Nervous System DiseasesEye DiseasesMusculoskeletal DiseasesWound & InjuriesMetabolic DisordersCardiovascular DisordersImmune System Disorders

Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Geography:

North AmericaEuropeAsia PacificMiddle East & AfricaLatin America

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In terms of geographic, North America dominates the global stem cell therapy market due to increased research activities on stem cells. The U.S. represents the largest market for stem cell therapy followed by Canada in North America. However, Asia is expected to show high growth rates in the next five years in global stem cell therapy market due to increasing population. In addition, increasing government support by providing funds is also supporting in growth of the stem cell therapy market in Asia. China and India are expected to be the fastest growing stem cell therapy markets in Asia.

Key Players in the Stem Cell Therapy Market are:

Chiesi Farmaceutici S.P.A Are:Gamida CellReNeuron Group, plcOsiris Therapeutics, Inc.Stem Cells, Inc.Vericel Corporation.Mesoblast, Ltd.

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Stem Cell Therapy Market To Increase Exponentially During 2018 2025 - Downey Magazine