Medically reviewed by Richard M. Stone, MD
More than 60,000 new cases ofadult leukemiaare diagnosed in the U.S. each year. Although it is one of the more common childhood cancers,leukemia occurs more often in older adults.
Leukemia is a cancer of the bodys blood-forming tissues that results in large numbers of abnormal or immature white blood cells. The main types of leukemia are:
AML causes the bone marrow to produce immature white blood cells (called myeloblasts). As a result, patients may have a very high or lowwhite blood cellcount, and lowred blood cellsandplatelets.
CLL is the second most common type of leukemia in adults. It is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many maturelymphocytes(a type of white blood cell).
ALL is a type of leukemia in which the bone marrow makes too many immaturelymphocytes. Similar to AML, the white blood cells can be high or low and oftentimes the platelets and red blood cells are low. This form of leukemia is more common in children than adults.
CML is usually a slowly progressing disease in which too many mature white blood cells are made in the bone marrow.
People with leukemia may experience:
Because these symptoms can be caused by a variety of other conditions, its important to check with your doctor if they arise.
While studies have shown men to be more atrisk than women, some other risk factors include:
While test procedures vary based on the type of leukemia, the two most common procedures are thecomplete blood count(CBC) test and the bone marrow aspiration biopsy.
CBC is a procedure used to check the redblood cell and platelet counts as well as the number and type of white bloodcells (the red cells carry oxygen, the white cells fight and prevent infection,and platelets control bleeding). A bone marrow aspiration biopsy involvesremoving a sample of bone marrow, including a small piece of bone by insertinga needle into the hipbone. The sample is then examined for abnormal cells.
Treatment for leukemia varies depending on the type and specific diagnosis.
The treatment for acute leukemias may be lengthy up to two years in ALL and is usually done in phases. The first phase, known as remission induction therapy, involves administering several chemotherapy drugs over a several-week period. The goal is to destroy as many cancer cells as possible to achieve a remission (in which cancer cells are undetectable, but small amounts are still present).
The second phase, known aspost-remission or consolidation therapy, seeks to kill leukemia cells thatremain after remission induction therapy. This phase may involve chemotherapyand/or a stem cell transplant.
Additional treatments may also be necessary. ALL patients, for example, may receive special treatment to prevent the disease from recurring in the spinal cord or brain.
The treatment for CML has been revolutionized by the advent of the oral medication imatinib and the second- and third-generation drugs known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). These are oral medications that work to inhibit the function of theBCR-ABLprotein. Many patients take these medications for the rest of their lives. In rare instances, a patient may require a stem cell transplant.
Some patients with CLL are recommended formonitoring and observation. Others,usually those with symptoms or low red cell or platelet counts, requiretreatment. Such treatment may involve intravenous chemotherapy, but often withoral therapy with pills that inhibit the function of a key protein, Brutonstyrosine kinase.
Treatments for leukemia can include:
Drugs that harness the immune system in fighting leukemia have shown considerable promise. Some monoclonal antibodies synthetic versions of immune system proteins are already in use to treat certain forms of leukemia and others are being studies in clinical trials.
Another form of immunotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, which release a pent-up immune system attack on tumor cells, is being tested in several forms of leukemia. Cancer vaccines, which boost the immune systems ability to fight cancer, are being studied for use in leukemia.
CAR T-cell therapy, which uses modified immune system T cells to better target and kill tumor cells, has achieved impressive results in trials involving children and adults up to age 25 with relapsed ALL.
Research into new treatments for adult leukemia is moving along several tracks in addition to immunotherapy.
By tracking the specific abnormal genes within leukemia cells, physicians are increasingly able to tailor treatment to the unique characteristics of the disease in each patient. Targeted drugs such as imatinib and dasatinib, for example, are now used in treating patients with ALL whose leukemia cells have an abnormality known as the Philadelphia chromosome. Targeted agents including IDH or FLT3 inhibitors, which zero in on proteins made from mutated genes, have been approved to treat some patients with AML, while other such inhibitors are being tested in clinical trials.
New tests make it possible to detect ever smaller amounts of leukemia that remain after treatment. Investigators are exploring how these minute levels may influence a patients prognosis and how they might impact treatment.
Researchers are testing whether treatment periods for certain drugs can be safely reduced in some patients. For instance, studies are under way to determine if drugs such as imatinib, which are currently taken for life, can be safely stopped in some patients with CML. Researchers hope to test whether treating patients with CLL with the drug ibrutinib plus other medicine for a fixed amount of time is safe and effective.
Patients may consider treatment through a clinical trial.Dana-Farber currently has more than 30 clinical trials for adult leukemia. A national list of clinical trials is available atclinicaltrials.gov.
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Adult Leukemia: What You Need to Know - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
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