Embryonic Stem Cell Definition
An embryonic stem cell is a cell derived from the early stages of an embryo which is capable of differentiating into any type of body cell. Embryonic stem cells are capable of differentiating into any cell type because in the embryo that is what they are used for. As the embryo grows and divides, cells which are generalized must become more and more specific as they divide. This eventually creates the different organs, tissues, and systems of an organism.
After the sperm reaches an egg (oocyte), fertilization occurs and the DNA from the two cells merge into a single nucleus, in a single cell. This is the zygote, and is technically an embryonic stem cell because as it divides it will differentiate into all of the cells of the body. This cell, and the first few divisions of this cell, are totipotent. This means that they have the ability to become an entire organism. Identical twins, for example, develop from the same zygote which accidentally separates when it begins to divide.
In medicine and research, scientist use pluripotent embryonic stem cells. These cells do not have the ability to become an entire organism. Rather, they are directed by signals from the early embryo which tell them which cell type to differentiate into. Scientists prefer these cells for many reasons. First, they can be stored and maintained more easily. Totipotent cells have a tendency to differentiate quickly, and immediately try to become an organism. Pluripotent cells are waiting for a signal to divide, and can be maintained for longer periods. Further, because pluripotent cells are simply waiting for the proper signals to tell them which cell type to become, they can easily be integrated into medical applications in which new tissue must be grown.
There are also other types of stem cells, not to be confused with an embryonic stem cell. Embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos. There are also adult stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells, and fetal stem cells. Not only are these stem cells sometimes more ethically challenging, they are only multipotent, meaning they can only become a small range of cell types.
The use of embryonic stem cells is a very new form of medicine. For decades, the cause of many degenerative diseases and physical injuries has been understood. Tissue damage is the root cause of many of these ailments, and scientist have long been searching for a method of growing tissues which do not easily repair themselves. Because an embryonic stem cell is pluripotent, and can become almost any cell in the body, these cells have long been studied for their possible use in medicine.
Since the late 1950s scientists have been trying to test various methods of growing tissue with an embryonic stem cell. The first clinical trials were in the late 1960s, but not much progress has been made. President Bush put a moratorium on using Federal funds for stem cell research, which was finally lifted by the Obama Administration in 2009. European countries have also faced an uphill battle in funding stem cell research. However, with advances in the science came new discoveries which allowed for more ethical harvesting of an embryonic stem cell. The first treatments with medicinal stem cells were in 2010.
Medically, the embryonic stem cell is limited in its current uses, though many novel applications are in the works. Current treatments focus on the replacement of damaged tissue from injury or disease. Of these, the first treatment approved by the FDA to undergo trials was replacing damaged tissue in spinal injuries. Because nerve cells rarely regenerate, an embryonic stem cell can be used to replace the damage nerve and restore function. In someone with a spinal injury, this means being able to walk again. For a blind person, this might mean being able to see again. While the treatment is still new and success is limited, it has shown some positive results.
Still other medical advances are made with the embryonic stem cell, although these dont come as direct medical treatments but rather as the knowledge that stem cells give us. As an embryonic stem cell differentiates into its target tissue, scientists can study the chemicals and methods it uses to do so. Scientists can also alter the genome of these cells, and study the effects different mutations have on a cells functioning. Between these two paths of discovery, scientists have assembled much information about how and why cells differentiate and divide. Using these tools, scientists are closing in on methods which would allow them to turn regular cell back into a pluripotent stem cell. This process could not only fix injuries and ailments, but could potentially reverse aging and prevent death.
On a less dramatic and grand scale, these methods are also being used to cure common diseases, such as diabetes. By learning how embryonic stem cells become pancreas cells and secrete insulin, scientists are learning the methods of converting other tissues to insulin-secreting tissues. This could help cure diabetes, often caused by the destruction of insulin producing cells. If these were replaced with stem cells, or other cells were induced to become pancreas cells, the disease could be cured. Other diseases, like cystic fibrosis, fragile x syndrome, and other genetic disorders are studied in embryonic stem cells. Not only can many cells be created, but they can be differentiated into different cell types. In this way, a scientist can build a picture of the disease from snapshots of each cell type, and understand exactly how the disease is affecting a person.
While there was once a concern that embryonic stem cells were being harvested without consent from unknowing women, the vast majority are now ethically harvested an in vitro fertilization clinics. In these clinics, in order to get a successful pregnancy, many eggs must be fertilized. Only one is implanted, and with the womans consent the rest can be used to harvest embryonic stem cells. To do this, scientists extract some embryonic stem cells from an embryo when it is only a small ball of cells. This can be seen in the image below.
A harvested embryonic stem cell is placed in a petri dish with nutrients and is allowed to divide. Without any signals from the embryo, the cells remain pluripotent. They continue dividing, fill one dish, and they are transferred to many more dishes and continue to grow. After 6 months of this, they are considered a successful pluripotent embryonic stem cell line. They can then be used to study disease, be used in treatments, or be manipulated genetically to provide models for how cells work.
To test that these cells are indeed pluripotent stem cells, they are injected into mice with depressed immune systems. The mice must have depressed immune systems, or their bodies would naturally reject the human tissue. Once implanted into the mouse, successful pluripotent cells will form a small tumor called a teratoma. This small tumor has different tissue types, and proves that the cell line is still pluripotent and can differentiate into different cell types.
There are a number of other types of stem cells, besides embryonic stem cells. These cells come from different sources and can be used for different purposes. Often, they are only multipotent, and can transform into only a narrow range of cell types. One example is umbilical cord blood stem cells, which have been used in medical treatments to treat various blood diseases and suppressed immune systems. The stem cells in the blood of the umbilical cord can differentiate into almost any type of blood or immune cell, making them multipotent. However, this limits their use in other areas of medicine.
There are also adult stem cells, which survive in various organs throughout the body. These cells are also multipotent, and can only differentiate into the kinds of tissue in which they are found. A common use of adult stem cells is the bone marrow transplant. In this procedure a healthy donor must have their marrow extracted from their bones. The marrow is a blood-like substance on the inside of large bones which creates blood cells and immune cells. Cancer patients, having undergone radiation and chemotherapy, lose most of their immune cells and become immunocompromised. Often a bone marrow transplant is needed to replace these tissues. The new stem cells begin producing new immune cells, which help the patient recover and fight off infection and disease.
1. What is the difference between pluripotent and multipotent stem cells? A. There is no difference B. Pluripotent cells can become a wider variety of cell types C. Multipotent cells can become a wider variety of cell types
Answer to Question #1
B is correct. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are one step below totipotent stem cells. These pluripotent cells can become almost any cell type in the body, except the cells needed to support a developing embryo. Multipotent cells are already differentiated to a specific degree, and are restricted to creating only a few types of cells.
2. At a certain stage, embryonic stem cells are totipotent. Why dont scientists use these stem cells? A. These cells have the potential to become an entire organism B. The pluripotent stem cells can become more cell types C. Totipotent cells cannot survive in the lab
Answer to Question #2
A is correct. Because totipotent cells have the potential to become an entire organism, they will actively work to do so. That means that whether they are in the lab or in the womb, they will try to direct the development of an organism. They do this by releasing hormones and chemicals which cause the cells to divide and differentiate. Pluripotent cells can be suspended in a generalized state, which makes them better candidates for study and medical procedures.
3. Which of the following ailments cannot potentially be treated with stem cells? A. Brain injury B. Diabetes C. Cancer
Answer to Question #3
C is correct. While the side-effects from treating cancer are treated with stem cells (see above on bone marrow transplants), treating the actual cancer is done with radiation and chemotherapy. These treatments also kill the rapidly dividing stem cells in a persons body, which is why they must be replaced.
Read the rest here:
Embryonic Stem Cell: Definition, Uses and Collection ...
- Diabetes breakthrough: Revolutionary stem cell technique treated 'severe' disease in study - Daily Express - November 22nd, 2021
- The Role of Quality and Speed in Custom Model Generation - FierceBiotech - October 5th, 2021
- Healthcare Researchers Are Putting HUMAN Immune Systems In Pigs To Study Illnesses-Here's The Tech Behind It - Tech Times - October 5th, 2021
- Stem cells may be the key to saving white rhinos from extinction - Sciworthy - October 5th, 2021
- Global Allogenic Stem Cell Therapy Market 2021 Size, Share, Growth and Regional Analysis by Segmentation and Country Forecast to 2028 - Digital... - October 5th, 2021
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market 2021 Is Booming Across the Globe by Share, Size, Growth, Segments and Forecast to 2027 The Courier - The Courier - June 8th, 2021
- Conversion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into neural crest cells and functional corneal endothelia by defined small molecules - Science Advances - June 8th, 2021
- Global Stem Cells Market Regulations and Competitive Landscape Outlook, 2020 to 2025 The Courier - The Courier - June 8th, 2021
- Global cell isolation market was valued at USD7013.71 million in 2020 and is anticipated to reach USD15529.45 million by 2026 - Yahoo Finance - June 8th, 2021
- Human blastocyst-like structures generated entirely from pluripotent stem cells. Shifting the paradigm of developmental biology? - ESHRE - April 4th, 2021
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market 2021 Is Rapidly Increasing Worldwide in Near Future | Top Companies Analysis- ESI BIO, Thermo Fisher,... - April 4th, 2021
- New Michigan law requires those receiving Johnson & Johnson vaccine be told it was developed using stem cells | TheHill - The Hill - April 4th, 2021
- Xenobots 2.0 are Here and Still Developed With Frog Stem Cells - Unite.AI - April 4th, 2021
- Global Human Embryonic Stem Cells Industry Market 2021 In-depth Industry Analysis, Growth By 2027:Lonza Group Ltd., Life Technologies Corporation,... - April 4th, 2021
- AgeX Therapeutics Reports Fourth Quarter and Annual 2020 Financial Results and Provides Business Update - Business Wire - April 4th, 2021
- Research Associate in Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine job with KINGS COLLEGE LONDON | 246711 - Times Higher Education (THE) - February 17th, 2021
- Stem Cells Market Size 2021 by Share Growing Rapidly with Recent Trends, Size, Development, Revenue, Demand and Forecast to 2024 NeighborWebSJ -... - February 17th, 2021
- Cell transplant therapy could be a treatment for leading cause of blindness - The Denver Channel - February 17th, 2021
- Cellular Reprogramming Tools Market likely to touch new heights by end of forec - Business-newsupdate.com - February 17th, 2021
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market Analysis By Growth ... - February 9th, 2021
- Pros and Cons of embryonic stem cells - Pros an Cons - February 9th, 2021
- Worldwide Cell Therapy Industry to 2027 - Profiling Allosource, Medipost and Mesoblast Among Others - PRNewswire - February 9th, 2021
- Reactivation of the pluripotency program precedes formation of the cranial neural crest - Science Magazine - February 4th, 2021
- Should We Double The Age When Science Can Experiment On Babies? - 550 KTSA - February 4th, 2021
- Why Cynata is hopeful its COVID treatment trial will succeed where others have failed - Business News Australia - February 4th, 2021
- Missouri State Representative Indicted Over Alleged Stem Cell Therapy Scam - IFLScience - February 4th, 2021
- Global Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market increasing demand with Industry Professionalist |know the Brand Players forecast 2027 Jumbo News - Jumbo... - February 4th, 2021
- Push on to Allow Expanded Human-Embryo Research - National Review - February 4th, 2021
- Stem Cells Market is Expected to Thrive at Impressive CAGR by 2025 Murphy's Hockey Law - Murphy's Hockey Law - February 4th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Size, Top Key Players, Applications, Business Statistics, Trends and Forecast 2021-2027 The Bisouv Network - The Bisouv... - February 4th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Size to Reach USD 5,040 Million by 2028 | Rising Public-Private Investments and Developing Regulatory Framework for Stem Cell... - January 30th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market 2021: Global Key Players, Trends, Share, Industry Size, Segmentation, Forecast To 2027 KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper - KSU |... - January 30th, 2021
- Stem Cell Manufacturing includes Attractiveness and Raw Material Analysis and Competitor Position Grid Analysis to 2027 | Merck KGaA, Thermo Fisher... - January 30th, 2021
- RNA Molecules Are Masters of Their Own Destiny Regulating Their Own Production Through a Feedback Loop - SciTechDaily - January 30th, 2021
- The chromosomal protein SMCHD1 regulates DNA methylation and the 2c-like state of embryonic stem cells by antagonizing TET proteins - Science Advances - January 23rd, 2021
- North America to be the Torchbearer to Stem Cell Characterization And Analysis Tools Market NeighborWebSJ - NeighborWebSJ - January 23rd, 2021
- New Research Grant Seeks to Clarify the Role Genes Play in Modulating Inflammation - NYU Langone Health - January 23rd, 2021
- JARID2 and AEBP2 regulate PRC2 in the presence of H2AK119ub1 and other histone modifications - Science Magazine - January 23rd, 2021
- DiNAQOR Acquires EHT Technologies GmbH to Advance Engineered Heart Tissue R&D Capabilities - PRNewswire - January 19th, 2021
- TBC1D3 promotes neural progenitor proliferation by suppressing the histone methyltransferase G9a - Science Advances - January 19th, 2021
- 'He was very honored in his work' - Mercer Island Reporter - December 28th, 2020
- Israeli biotech firm's ALS treatment shows safety of use in trials - The Jerusalem Post - December 16th, 2020
- Ca Bishops To Work w/ Govt on Vaccination Campaigns - Catholic Herald Online - December 14th, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market 2019 | Analyzing The Impact Followed By Restraints, Opportunities And Projected Developments | DataIntelo -... - December 6th, 2020
- Stem Cell Market Technology 2021 and Application, Segmentation by Leading Global Players, Market Status by Share and Size Forecast to 2024 - The... - December 6th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Size, Opportunities, Dynamic, Outlook and Forecast To 2027 - Cheshire Media - December 6th, 2020
- Stem Cells Market will grow at CAGR of 8.61% by 2027 Cheshire Media - Cheshire Media - December 6th, 2020
- Stem Cell Medical Research to Expand in California Following Passage of Prop. 14 - Times of San Diego - November 27th, 2020
- Mechanisms of Telomere Protection Are Unique in Stem Cells - Technology Networks - November 27th, 2020
- Stem Cells Market by 2020 Research Report by Manufactures, Types, Applications, Regions and Trends to 2024 | Absolute Reports - The Market Feed - November 25th, 2020
- Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market Share, Growth by Top Company, Region, Application, Driver, Trends & Forecasts by 2026 - PRnews Leader - November 25th, 2020
- Stem Cells Market Research Provides an In-Depth Analysis on the Future Growth Prospects and Industry Trends Adopted by the Competitors | (2020-2027),... - November 25th, 2020
- Stem Cells Market 2020: Rising with Immense Development Trends across the Globe by 2027 - The Market Feed - November 25th, 2020
- Global Regenerative Medicine Market 2020-2025: Opportunities with the Implementation of the 21st Century Cures Act - Yahoo Finance - November 25th, 2020
- Stem Cell Characterization and Analysis Tool Market 2020: Potential growth, attractive valuation make it is a long-term investment | Know the COVID19... - November 25th, 2020
- Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market 2020 Emerging Trend and Advancement - News by aeresearch - November 9th, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market 2020 Manufacturer Analysis, Emerging Trends, Top Companies and Forecast to 2027 - TechnoWeekly - November 7th, 2020
- Voters asked to approve $5.5 billion for stem cell research - Lebanon Express - November 7th, 2020
- Transcriptional priming as a conserved mechanism of lineage diversification in the developing mouse and human neocortex - Science Advances - November 7th, 2020
- Cell Therapy Manufacturing Market to be Worth USD 8 billion by 2030, predicts Roots Analysis - PRnews Leader - November 7th, 2020
- U.S. elections bring wins and losses for research community - Science Magazine - November 5th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Size, Key Development Trends, and Growth Projection to 2027 - Stock Market Vista - November 5th, 2020
- Global Stem Cells Market 2020 Industry Outlook, Growth, Comprehensive Insights and Forecast 2025 - PRnews Leader - November 5th, 2020
- Panelists debate the implications and ethics of stem cell research - Johns Hopkins News-Letter - October 30th, 2020
- Stem Cell and Regenerative Therapy Market to Remain Balanced During the the COVID-19 Period - re:Jerusalem - October 30th, 2020
- Study Identifies Pitfall for Correcting Mutations in Human Embryos with CRISPR - Columbia University Irving Medical Center - October 30th, 2020
- Yale New Haven Health Docs: Interpreting the Uptick in Covid-19 Cases - Greenwich Free Press - October 30th, 2020
- Is the Pro-Life Movement on a Collision Course with the Coronavirus? - The Dispatch - October 29th, 2020
- Outlook for stem cell therapy - its role in tendon regeneration - different treatments for horse tendon injuries - Trainer Magazine - October 29th, 2020
- Yale Health advises against large Thanksgiving gatherings; eastern Connecticut now considered a 'hot spot' - The Westerly Sun - October 29th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market to Register Unwavering Growth During 2025 - The Think Curiouser - October 29th, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market Share, Analysis and In-depth Research on Market Size, Trends, Emerging Growth Factors and Regional Forecasts... - October 20th, 2020
- COVID-19 Analysis to Understand the Competitive Outlook of Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market - The Think Curiouser - October 20th, 2020
- Competitive Landscape of Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market 2020 | Global Industry Size, Volume, Trends and Revenue Forecast to 2025 - The Think... - October 20th, 2020
- Stem Cells Market 2020 is predicted to rise with a CAGR of XX% by 2026 | Including Growth Prospect, Market Size & Growth, Key Vendors, Top most... - October 20th, 2020
- Global Stem Cell Reconstructive Market- Industry Analysis and Forecast (2020-2027) - Stock Market Vista - October 20th, 2020
- Global Stem Cell Manufacturing Market: Industry Analysis and forecast 2019 2027: By Product, Application, End-Users and Region - Stock Market Vista - October 20th, 2020
- The Infodemic: Was Regeneron COVID-19 Treatment Developed Using Stem Cells and Fetal Tissue? - Voice of America - October 15th, 2020
- COVID-19 Impact on Global Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market 2020 Industry Overview, Demand and Insights Analysis Report by 2026 ESI BIO, Thermo... - October 15th, 2020
- Yes on 14 | Mailbox | independentnews.com - Livermore Independent - October 15th, 2020