Embryonic Stem Cell Definition
An embryonic stem cell is a cell derived from the early stages of an embryo which is capable of differentiating into any type of body cell. Embryonic stem cells are capable of differentiating into any cell type because in the embryo that is what they are used for. As the embryo grows and divides, cells which are generalized must become more and more specific as they divide. This eventually creates the different organs, tissues, and systems of an organism.
After the sperm reaches an egg (oocyte), fertilization occurs and the DNA from the two cells merge into a single nucleus, in a single cell. This is the zygote, and is technically an embryonic stem cell because as it divides it will differentiate into all of the cells of the body. This cell, and the first few divisions of this cell, are totipotent. This means that they have the ability to become an entire organism. Identical twins, for example, develop from the same zygote which accidentally separates when it begins to divide.
In medicine and research, scientist use pluripotent embryonic stem cells. These cells do not have the ability to become an entire organism. Rather, they are directed by signals from the early embryo which tell them which cell type to differentiate into. Scientists prefer these cells for many reasons. First, they can be stored and maintained more easily. Totipotent cells have a tendency to differentiate quickly, and immediately try to become an organism. Pluripotent cells are waiting for a signal to divide, and can be maintained for longer periods. Further, because pluripotent cells are simply waiting for the proper signals to tell them which cell type to become, they can easily be integrated into medical applications in which new tissue must be grown.
There are also other types of stem cells, not to be confused with an embryonic stem cell. Embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos. There are also adult stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells, and fetal stem cells. Not only are these stem cells sometimes more ethically challenging, they are only multipotent, meaning they can only become a small range of cell types.
The use of embryonic stem cells is a very new form of medicine. For decades, the cause of many degenerative diseases and physical injuries has been understood. Tissue damage is the root cause of many of these ailments, and scientist have long been searching for a method of growing tissues which do not easily repair themselves. Because an embryonic stem cell is pluripotent, and can become almost any cell in the body, these cells have long been studied for their possible use in medicine.
Since the late 1950s scientists have been trying to test various methods of growing tissue with an embryonic stem cell. The first clinical trials were in the late 1960s, but not much progress has been made. President Bush put a moratorium on using Federal funds for stem cell research, which was finally lifted by the Obama Administration in 2009. European countries have also faced an uphill battle in funding stem cell research. However, with advances in the science came new discoveries which allowed for more ethical harvesting of an embryonic stem cell. The first treatments with medicinal stem cells were in 2010.
Medically, the embryonic stem cell is limited in its current uses, though many novel applications are in the works. Current treatments focus on the replacement of damaged tissue from injury or disease. Of these, the first treatment approved by the FDA to undergo trials was replacing damaged tissue in spinal injuries. Because nerve cells rarely regenerate, an embryonic stem cell can be used to replace the damage nerve and restore function. In someone with a spinal injury, this means being able to walk again. For a blind person, this might mean being able to see again. While the treatment is still new and success is limited, it has shown some positive results.
Still other medical advances are made with the embryonic stem cell, although these dont come as direct medical treatments but rather as the knowledge that stem cells give us. As an embryonic stem cell differentiates into its target tissue, scientists can study the chemicals and methods it uses to do so. Scientists can also alter the genome of these cells, and study the effects different mutations have on a cells functioning. Between these two paths of discovery, scientists have assembled much information about how and why cells differentiate and divide. Using these tools, scientists are closing in on methods which would allow them to turn regular cell back into a pluripotent stem cell. This process could not only fix injuries and ailments, but could potentially reverse aging and prevent death.
On a less dramatic and grand scale, these methods are also being used to cure common diseases, such as diabetes. By learning how embryonic stem cells become pancreas cells and secrete insulin, scientists are learning the methods of converting other tissues to insulin-secreting tissues. This could help cure diabetes, often caused by the destruction of insulin producing cells. If these were replaced with stem cells, or other cells were induced to become pancreas cells, the disease could be cured. Other diseases, like cystic fibrosis, fragile x syndrome, and other genetic disorders are studied in embryonic stem cells. Not only can many cells be created, but they can be differentiated into different cell types. In this way, a scientist can build a picture of the disease from snapshots of each cell type, and understand exactly how the disease is affecting a person.
While there was once a concern that embryonic stem cells were being harvested without consent from unknowing women, the vast majority are now ethically harvested an in vitro fertilization clinics. In these clinics, in order to get a successful pregnancy, many eggs must be fertilized. Only one is implanted, and with the womans consent the rest can be used to harvest embryonic stem cells. To do this, scientists extract some embryonic stem cells from an embryo when it is only a small ball of cells. This can be seen in the image below.
A harvested embryonic stem cell is placed in a petri dish with nutrients and is allowed to divide. Without any signals from the embryo, the cells remain pluripotent. They continue dividing, fill one dish, and they are transferred to many more dishes and continue to grow. After 6 months of this, they are considered a successful pluripotent embryonic stem cell line. They can then be used to study disease, be used in treatments, or be manipulated genetically to provide models for how cells work.
To test that these cells are indeed pluripotent stem cells, they are injected into mice with depressed immune systems. The mice must have depressed immune systems, or their bodies would naturally reject the human tissue. Once implanted into the mouse, successful pluripotent cells will form a small tumor called a teratoma. This small tumor has different tissue types, and proves that the cell line is still pluripotent and can differentiate into different cell types.
There are a number of other types of stem cells, besides embryonic stem cells. These cells come from different sources and can be used for different purposes. Often, they are only multipotent, and can transform into only a narrow range of cell types. One example is umbilical cord blood stem cells, which have been used in medical treatments to treat various blood diseases and suppressed immune systems. The stem cells in the blood of the umbilical cord can differentiate into almost any type of blood or immune cell, making them multipotent. However, this limits their use in other areas of medicine.
There are also adult stem cells, which survive in various organs throughout the body. These cells are also multipotent, and can only differentiate into the kinds of tissue in which they are found. A common use of adult stem cells is the bone marrow transplant. In this procedure a healthy donor must have their marrow extracted from their bones. The marrow is a blood-like substance on the inside of large bones which creates blood cells and immune cells. Cancer patients, having undergone radiation and chemotherapy, lose most of their immune cells and become immunocompromised. Often a bone marrow transplant is needed to replace these tissues. The new stem cells begin producing new immune cells, which help the patient recover and fight off infection and disease.
1. What is the difference between pluripotent and multipotent stem cells? A. There is no difference B. Pluripotent cells can become a wider variety of cell types C. Multipotent cells can become a wider variety of cell types
Answer to Question #1
B is correct. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are one step below totipotent stem cells. These pluripotent cells can become almost any cell type in the body, except the cells needed to support a developing embryo. Multipotent cells are already differentiated to a specific degree, and are restricted to creating only a few types of cells.
2. At a certain stage, embryonic stem cells are totipotent. Why dont scientists use these stem cells? A. These cells have the potential to become an entire organism B. The pluripotent stem cells can become more cell types C. Totipotent cells cannot survive in the lab
Answer to Question #2
A is correct. Because totipotent cells have the potential to become an entire organism, they will actively work to do so. That means that whether they are in the lab or in the womb, they will try to direct the development of an organism. They do this by releasing hormones and chemicals which cause the cells to divide and differentiate. Pluripotent cells can be suspended in a generalized state, which makes them better candidates for study and medical procedures.
3. Which of the following ailments cannot potentially be treated with stem cells? A. Brain injury B. Diabetes C. Cancer
Answer to Question #3
C is correct. While the side-effects from treating cancer are treated with stem cells (see above on bone marrow transplants), treating the actual cancer is done with radiation and chemotherapy. These treatments also kill the rapidly dividing stem cells in a persons body, which is why they must be replaced.
Read the rest here:
Embryonic Stem Cell: Definition, Uses and Collection ...
- Stem Cell Therapy Market by Treatment,Application,End Users and Geography Forecast To... - Azizsalon News - May 21st, 2020
- Georgetown student takes Islamic bioethics research at QF to Washington and wins - Gulf Times - May 21st, 2020
- Dose-dependent functions of SWI/SNF BAF in permitting and inhibiting cell proliferation in vivo - Science Advances - May 21st, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market to witness an impressive growth during - News by aeresearch - May 20th, 2020
- Qatar- Georgetown student takes Islamic bioethics research at QF to Washington and wins - MENAFN.COM - May 15th, 2020
- Millions of Human Cells Have Been Grown Inside Mice Embryos - Newsweek - May 14th, 2020
- AgeX Therapeutics Reports First Quarter 2020 Financial Results and Provides Business Update - Business Wire - May 14th, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market Growth by Top Companies, Trends by Types and Application, Forecast to 2026 - Cole of Duty - May 14th, 2020
- The Cell Therapy Industry to 2028: Global Market & Technology Analysis, Company Profiles of 309 Players (170 Involved in Stem Cells) -... - May 14th, 2020
- 2025 Projections: Cell Freezing Media for Cell Therapy Market Report by Type, Application and Regional Outlook - AlgosOnline - May 14th, 2020
- Tolero Pharmaceuticals Announces Expansion of the Zella 102 Study in Patients with Intermediate and High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) - The... - May 14th, 2020
- Strides in Medical Tourism Market Key Driver of Low-cost Patient Care in Globalized Healthcare Systems, Notes TMR - Stockhouse - May 14th, 2020
- Uses and Abuses of Scientific Consensus - National Review - May 13th, 2020
- Lineage Cell Therapeutics Reports New Data With OpRegen for the Treatment of Dry AMD With Geographic Atrophy - Business Wire - May 13th, 2020
- COVID-19 Impact on STEM CELL THERAPY MARKET 2020 TO 2027-EXPANDING WORLDWIDE WITH TOP PLAYERS FUTURE BUSINESS SCOPE AND INVESTMENT ANALYSIS REPORT -... - May 13th, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market 2020 | Growth Drivers, Challenges, Trends, Market Dynamics and Forecast to 2026 - Cole of Duty - May 10th, 2020
- Louis Bacon Is Having The Time Of His Life - Dealbreaker - May 10th, 2020
- Lineage Cell Therapeutics Reports New Data With OpRegen for the Treatment of Dry AMD With Geographic Atrophy - Yahoo Finance - May 10th, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Germ Cells, and Cell-Derived ... - May 7th, 2020
- Inside the twisted world of 'rapist' designer Peter Nygard: book - The Loppy - May 4th, 2020
- Lack of investment is the biggest challenge in stem cell research - Express Healthcare - May 2nd, 2020
- AgeX Therapeutics: Revolutionary Potential But Extremely Early - Seeking Alpha - April 30th, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market Overview, Top Companies, Region, Application and Global Forecast by 2026 - Latest Herald - April 27th, 2020
- Role of MyHC-embryonic protein in muscle development and disease - Tech Explorist - April 27th, 2020
- The Republicans who were once so pro-life they fought over one woman on life support now want to sacrifice grandma for the economy - The Independent - April 26th, 2020
- Sustainably Yours: The importance of understanding and trusting in Science - The Phuket News - April 26th, 2020
- Mogrify and Sangamo announce collaboration and exclusive license agreement for Mogrify's iPSC- and ESC-derived regulatory T cells - SelectScience - April 24th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Research Outlook, Recent Trends and Growth Forecast 2020-2025 - Cole of Duty - April 24th, 2020
- Mogrify and Sangamo in license agreement for 'off-the-shelf' CAR-Treg - BioPharma-Reporter.com - April 23rd, 2020
- Lozier praises promising, and ethical, blindness study - OneNewsNow - April 23rd, 2020
- A potent CBP/p300-Snail interaction inhibitor suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in wild-type p53-expressing cancer - Science Advances - April 23rd, 2020
- PHF20L1 as a H3K27me2 reader coordinates with transcriptional repressors to promote breast tumorigenesis - Science Advances - April 21st, 2020
- Cyborg computer chips will get their brain from human neurons - SYFY WIRE - April 11th, 2020
- Stem Cells Market Expected to Boost the Global Industry Growth in the Near Future - Germany English News - April 11th, 2020
- Germline mutation of MDM4, a major p53 regulator, in a familial syndrome of defective telomere maintenance - Science Advances - April 11th, 2020
- Turning Back the Clock on Aging Cells - The New York Times - March 31st, 2020
- A New Way to Study HIV's Impact on the Brain - Global Health News Wire - March 31st, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cell Market Analysis and Forecasts to 2027 By Recent Trends, Developments In Manufacturing Technology And Regional Growth... - March 31st, 2020
- Laboratory model looking at how a HIV infection impacts the brain - Health Europa - March 31st, 2020
- Cell Banking Outsourcing Market With Economic Growth And Five Forces Analysis By 2021 - Lake Shore Gazette - March 30th, 2020
- Global Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market Provides an In-Depth Insight of Sales Analysis, Growth Forecast and Upcoming Trends Opportunities by Types... - March 26th, 2020
- PD-1 Blocker Safe in Childhood Cancers. But Does It Work? - MedPage Today - March 19th, 2020
- YAP1 is a potent driver of the onset and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma - Science Advances - March 19th, 2020
- Can hybrid embryos save the white rhinos from extinction? - Science 101 - March 17th, 2020
- Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market 2020: Potential Growth, Challenges, Attractive Valuation | Key Players: Anterogen, Holostem Advanced... - March 17th, 2020
- Worldwide Cell Therapy Market Projections to 2028 - The Largest Expansion Will Be in Diseases of the Central Nervous System, Cancer and Cardiovascular... - March 15th, 2020
- 22.5% Growth Rate for Synthetic Stem Cells Market by 2028 | Overview, Top Technologies, Key Insights and Company Profiles - News Times - March 15th, 2020
- Single-Cell Analysis of Ovarian Cortex Fails to Find Stem Cells - The Scientist - March 7th, 2020
- Organoids, iPSCs, and advanced cell models: Advancing discovery from basic research to drug discovery - Science Magazine - March 2nd, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast up to 2017 2025 - Jewish Life News - March 2nd, 2020
- The very interesting life of the Hydractinia - Jill Lopez - February 28th, 2020
- Intrinsic disorder controls two functionally distinct dimers of the master transcription factor PU.1 - Science Advances - February 22nd, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market: Business Opportunities, Current Trends and Industry Analysis by 2018 2028 - Instant Tech News - February 21st, 2020
- Anatomy of a grant: Ashley Kramer's yearlong journey to finding her doctoral thesis - The South End - February 21st, 2020
- The Challenge of Bioethics to Decision-Making in the UK - Westminster Abbey - February 21st, 2020
- The 411 on Stem Cells: What They Are and Why It's Important to Be Educated - Legal Examiner - February 17th, 2020
- Will Cultured Meat Soon Be A Common Sight In Supermarkets Across The Globe? - Forbes - February 17th, 2020
- Genetic Secrets of How a Strange Marine Animal Produces Unlimited Eggs and Sperm Over Its Lifetime - SciTechDaily - February 15th, 2020
- Stem Cells Market Report by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application Forecast 2020-2025, Trends, Proportions, Share and SWOT. - Chronicle 99 - February 15th, 2020
- Embryonic Stem Cells - February 11th, 2020
- 3. Embryonic Stem Cells | Stem Cells and the Future of ... - February 5th, 2020
- Embryonic Stem Cell Fact Sheet - February 5th, 2020
- Embryonic Stem Cell Research Pros and Cons - Biology Wise - February 5th, 2020
- Early onset Parkinsons might begin in the womb: Prevention a possibility - The New Daily - February 1st, 2020
- How does the embryo make all its parts at just the right moments? - Knowable Magazine - January 31st, 2020
- Biobanking Market to Witness an Outstanding Growth During 2019-2030 :Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., PHC Holdings Corporation, QIAGEN NV - Media... - January 31st, 2020
- What are Progenitor Cells? Exploring Neural, Myeloid and Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells - Technology Networks - January 29th, 2020
- Lab-Grown Heart Muscles Have Been Transplanted Into a Human For The First Time - ScienceAlert - January 29th, 2020
- Antibodies recognizing the C terminus of PP2A catalytic subunit are unsuitable for evaluating PP2A activity and holoenzyme composition - Science - January 29th, 2020
- Comprehensive Research on Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market Report 2026 | Astellas Pharma Inc/ Ocata Therapeutics ,STEMCELL Technologies... - January 26th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Anticipated to Grow at a Significant Pace by 2020 - The Trusted Chronicle - January 26th, 2020
- What I Learned About Marriage as a Survivor of Abuse - SWAAY - January 26th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Current Trends and Future Growth Dagoretti News - Dagoretti News - January 22nd, 2020
- Memphis Meats raises $161m to build its cell-based meat platform: 'We have a pretty clear path to bringing prices down to cost parity' -... - January 22nd, 2020
- Stem Cell Assay Market Predicted to Accelerate the Growth by 2017-2025 Dagoretti News - Dagoretti News - January 17th, 2020
- Team builds the 1st living robots - EarthSky - January 17th, 2020
- Team Builds the First Living Robots - Newswise - January 17th, 2020
- The 'xenobot' is the worlds newest robot and it's made from living animal cells - The Loop - January 17th, 2020
- Scientists Have Built The First-Ever Robots Constructed Entirely Out of Living Cells - ScienceAlert - January 14th, 2020
- Scientists Assemble Frog Stem Cells Into First 'Living Machines' - Smithsonian.com - January 13th, 2020