Allogeneic stem cell transplantation involves transferring the stem cells from a healthy person (the donor) to your body after high-intensity chemotherapy or radiation.
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is used to cure some patients who:
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be a high-risk procedure. The high-conditioning regimens are meant to severely or completely impair your ability to make stem cells and you will likely experience side effects during the days you receive high-dose conditioning radiation or chemotherapy. The goals of high-conditioning therapy are to:
The immune system and the blood system are closely linked and can't be separated from each other. Because of this, allogeneic transplantation means that not only the donor's blood system but also his or her immune system is transferred. As a result, these adverse effects are possible:
The immune reaction, or GVHD, is treated by administering drugs to the patient after the transplant that reduce the ability of the donated immune cells to attack and injure the patient's tissues.SeeGraft Versus Host Disease.
Allogeneic stem cell transplants for patients who are older or have overall poor health are relatively uncommon. This is because the pre-transplant conditioning therapy is generally not well tolerated by such patients, especially those with poorly functioning internal organs. However,reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantsmay be an appropriate treatment for some older or sicker patients.
One goal of allogeneic stem cell transplant is to cause the T lymphocytes in the donor's blood or marrow to take hold (engraft) and grow in the patient's marrow. Sometimes the T lymphocytes attack the cancer cells. When this happens, it's called graft versus tumor (GVT) effect (also called graft versus cancer effect). The attack makes it less likely that the disease will return. This effect is more common in myeloid leukemias than it is in other blood cancers.
Unfortunately, T lymphocytes are the same cells that causegraft versus host disease(GVHD). Because of this serious and sometimes life-threatening side effect, doctors in certain cases want to decrease the number of T lymphocytes to be infused with the stem cells. This procedure, called T-lymphocyte depletion, is currently being studied by researchers. The technique involves treating the stem cells collected for transplant with agents that reduce the number of T lymphocytes.
The aim of T-lymphocyte depletion is to lessen GVHD's incidence and severity. However, it can also cause increased rates of graft rejection, a decreased GVT effect and a slower immune recovery. Doctors must be careful about the number of T lymphocytes removed when using this technique.
Stem cell selection is another technique being studied in clinical trials that can reduce the number of T lymphocytes that a patient receives. Because of specific features on the outer coat of stem cells, doctors can selectively remove stem cells from a cell mixture. This technique produces a large number of stem cells and fewer other cells, including T lymphocytes.
If you're considering allogeneic stem cell transplantation, you'll need a bone marrow donor. First, you and your siblings, if any, will have your blood or a scraping from your inside cheek tested to determine tissue type. A sibling has the potential to match you most closely because you both received your genes from the same parents.
A lab technician examines the surface of the sample tissue cells to identify the proteins that give everyone his or her own unique tissue type, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). If the HLA on the donor cells are identical (from identical twins, for example) or similar (such as those from siblings), the transplant is more likely to be successful. On average, you have a one in four chance of having the same HLA type as a sibling. Many patients, therefore, don't have a sibling with the same tissue type.
If a brother or sister doesn't provide a match, your doctor will search registries of volunteer donors such as theNational Marrow Donor Programfor an unrelated donor that matches your tissue type. A donor who's not related to you but who has a similar tissue type is called a matched unrelated donor (MUD).
Stem cells for transplantation are collected from three sources:
Before stem cells are collected from blood or bone marrow, the donor must undergo a thorough physical exam and blood testing for hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency disease (HIV) and other infectious agents or viruses.
The most common source of stem cells for transplant is peripheral blood, the blood that flows throughout our veins and arteries.
Bone marrow normally releases a small number of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) into the bloodstream. To obtain enough PBSCs for a transplant, the donor takes a white cell growth factor, such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) drug, which increases the number of stem cells by drawing them out of the marrow and into the bloodstream. When a patient's own stem cells are used, both G-CSF and the chemotherapy used to treat the disease usually increase PBSCs. In patients who have myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the drug plerixafor (Mozobil) can be used to mobilize their own stem cells.
The blood is removed from the donor and the cells collected using a process called apheresis, which involves placing a needle in the donor's vein, usually in the arm, similar to administering a blood test. The donor's blood is pumped through an apheresis machine, which separates the blood into four components: red cells, plasma, white cells and platelets. The white cells and platelets, which contain the stem cells, are collected, while the red cells and plasma are returned to the donor. It can take one to two sessions of apheresis to collect enough blood from a MUD. If you are your own donor, it may take more than two sessions.
If enough stem cells can't be retrieved from apheresis, they can be removed directly from the bone marrow. This requires the donor to undergo a minor outpatient surgical procedure.
While the donor is under anesthesia, the surgeon inserts a hollow needle into the donor's pelvic bones just below the waist and removes liquid marrow. This is done a number of times until several pints of marrow are collected. The donor can expect to stay in the hospital for six to eight hours after the procedure to recover from the anesthesia and the acute pain at the needle insertion sites. He or she may feel some lower back soreness for a few days afterward. The donor's body naturally replaces the marrow soon after the procedure. Red cells are also removed, and the donor may experience anemia, which is often treated with iron supplements.
The marrow that's removed (harvested) passes through a series of filters to remove bone or tissue fragments and is then placed in a plastic bag from which it can be infused into the recipient's vein. The marrow is usually given to the patient within a few hours and almost always within 24 hours. If necessary, however, marrow can be frozen and stored and will remain suitable for use for years. If the transplant is autologous, the marrow is usually frozen while the patient undergoes intensive chemotherapy.
A rich source of stem cells for blood cancer patients are the stored stem cells collected from the umbilical cord and placenta after a baby is born, called the cord blood unit. Parents may choose to have the cord blood unit collected after delivery. Healthy parents with healthy children and no transplant candidate in the family can choose to donate their newborn's cord blood to cord blood banks or research programs at participating hospitals. Parents with a child or a family member who could be a candidate for transplantation should discuss with their doctor the potential benefits of saving their newborn's cord blood for possible family use.
Advantages of Using Cord Blood
The advantages of using cord blood stem cells instead of donor peripheral blood or donor marrow stem cells include:
Disadvantages of Using Cord Blood
There can be disadvantages of using cord blood stem cells as well:
The decrease in marrow function often begins to take effect by the second or third day after an allogeneic stem cell infusion. You'll be kept in a protected environment to reduce contact with infectious agents. Generally within two to four weeks after the transplant, the engraftment of donated cells will be apparent from the appearance of normal white cells in your blood. You'll receive periodic transfusions of red cells and platelets until your marrow function has been restored by the transplanted stem cells.
Your doctor will carefully monitor you with physical exams, blood chemistry tests, imaging studies and other tests to ensure that your heart, lungs, kidneys, liver and other major organs are functioning normally. You'll need drugs to prevent GVHD, in addition to blood transfusions. If you're suffering from a poor appetite or diarrhea, you may need to be fed intravenously or through a duodenal tube (called hyperalimentation) to ensure you get adequate nutrition.
Continue reading here:
Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation | Leukemia and ...
- New Drug Could Improve Effectiveness of Stem Cell Therapy - Pain News Network - December 1st, 2020
- Are stable producer cells the future of viral vector manufacturing and when will allogeneic cell therapy take hold? - BioPharma-Reporter.com - December 1st, 2020
- How Stem Cell Therapy Market Will Dominate In Coming Years? Report Covering Products, Financial Information, Developments, Swot Analysis And... - December 1st, 2020
- The Promise of Using Cell Cultures To Fight SARS-CoV-2 - Technology Networks - December 1st, 2020
- Coronavirus Updates: The Latest Treatments and Vaccines - GovTech - December 1st, 2020
- HCT Deemed More Favorable for MDS That Is High Risk - Cancer Therapy Advisor - December 1st, 2020
- Mini kidneys bioprinted in the lab - Lab + Life Scientist - December 1st, 2020
- Canine Stem Cell Therapy Market Analysis, Overview, Growth, Demand and Forecast Research Report to 2026 - The Haitian-Caribbean News Network - December 1st, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Product Types, And Applications Forecast To 2026 - Cheshire Media - December 1st, 2020
- Animal Stem Cell Therapy Market Potential Growth, Size, Share, Demand and Analysis of Key Players Research Forecasts to 2026 - The Haitian-Caribbean... - December 1st, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Size, Growth, Demand, Opportunities & Forecast To 2025 - Cheshire Media - November 29th, 2020
- Mapping out the mystery of blood stem cells - Science Codex - November 26th, 2020
- Scientists Reveal a New Drug That Directs Stem Cells To Desired Sites - Science Times - November 26th, 2020
- Celularity Announces Dosing of First Patient in Phase I Study of Human Placental Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Derived Natural Killer Cells (CYNK-001) in... - November 26th, 2020
- The stem/progenitor landscape is reshaped in a mouse model of essential thrombocythemia and causes excess megakaryocyte production - Science Advances - November 26th, 2020
- Novartis bags Mesoblast's stem cell therapy for ARDS, including in Covid-19, in a deal worth up to $1.2B+ - Endpoints News - November 24th, 2020
- Global Stem Cells Market is estimated to account for US$ 18289.9 Mn by end of 2027, Says Coherent Market Insights (CMI) - Business Wire - November 24th, 2020
- Adherence to Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation to Improve Survival in Myelodysplastic Syndromes - Hematology Advisor - November 24th, 2020
- Anakinra: efficacy in the management of fever during neutropenia and mucositis in autologous stem cell transplantation (AFFECT-2)-study protocol for a... - November 24th, 2020
- Physical activity is associated with less comorbidity, better treatment tolerance and improved response in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing... - November 24th, 2020
- CAR T-cell therapy treatment helps cancer patient beat near impossible odds - ABC News - November 24th, 2020
- Correlation of whole-bone marrow dual-time-point (18)F-FDG, as measured by a CT-based method of PET/CT quantification, with response to treatment in... - November 24th, 2020
- Late Effects of Therapy Plague Many Patients Who Survived AML as Youths, Young Adults - AJMC.com Managed Markets Network - November 24th, 2020
- Rescue Therapy with Bendamustine and Other Agents May Result in High Response Rates in Relapsed or Refractory NHL - Curetoday.com - November 24th, 2020
- Genenta to Appoint Stephen Squinto, Experienced Biotech Executive and Investor, as Chairman - BioSpace - November 24th, 2020
- Exploring First-line Therapies in Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas - Targeted Oncology - November 24th, 2020
- Israeli Scientists Discover Oxygen Beauty Treatment That Can Make You Look 25 Years Younger - All You Need to - India.com - November 24th, 2020
- Novartis licenses phase 3 COVID-19 cell therapy from Mesoblast - FierceBiotech - November 22nd, 2020
- Benefits of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes - Hematology Advisor - November 22nd, 2020
- YOUR HEALTH: Your body may already have the answer to knee pain - WQAD.com - November 22nd, 2020
- Providing CAR T-Cell Therapy for Patients With DLBCL During COVID-19 - Targeted Oncology - November 22nd, 2020
- BioRestorative Therapies Emerges from Chapter 11 Reorganization - OrthoSpineNews - November 22nd, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 Trends, Market Share, Industry Size, Growth, Sales, Opportunities, Analysis and Forecast To 2026 - The Daily... - November 22nd, 2020
- Animal Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 Impact of COVID-19 | Size, Share & Latest Trends, Analysis Report by Manufacturers, Application, Type and... - November 22nd, 2020
- Canine Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 impact of COVID-19 on Industry Size, Share, Global Analysis, Development Status, Regional Trends, Opportunity... - November 22nd, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market, Share, Application Analysis, Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies & Forecast up to 2026 - The Daily Philadelphian - November 22nd, 2020
- gift of life marrow registry announces new center for cell and gene therapy - The Boca Raton Tribune - November 22nd, 2020
- Global Canine Stem Cell Therapy Industry Market Analysis, Key Company Profiles, Types, Applications and Forecast To 2026 - Royal Sutton News - November 22nd, 2020
- Increasing Progenitor Cell Proliferation in the Sub-Ventricular Zone: A Therapeutic Treatment for Progressive Multiple Sclerosis? - DocWire News - November 22nd, 2020
- Glycostem initiates phase I/IIa (pivotal) trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oNKord in patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) -... - November 22nd, 2020
- Impact Analysis of Covid-19 On Global Stem Cell Therapy Market Continues to Expand to Support Development and Top Players: Magellan, Medipost Co.,... - November 22nd, 2020
- Adrenoleukodystrophy Treatment Market: Rising awareness about rare diseases to drive the market - BioSpace - November 22nd, 2020
- AgeX Therapeutics Reports Third Quarter 2020 Financial Results and Provides Business Update - The Baytown Sun - November 16th, 2020
- Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of COVID-19-progress and challenges - DocWire News - November 16th, 2020
- The Animal Stem Cell Therapy market to fill the growth bill in the next decade - The Think Curiouser - November 16th, 2020
- Malaysia Animal Stem Cell Therapy Market Size 2020 | Opportunities, Regional Overview, Top Leaders, Revenue and Forecast to 2027 - Eurowire - November 16th, 2020
- Addenbrooke's becomes first regional centre to offer CAR-T cell treatment for cancer patients - Cambridge Network - November 16th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 Industry Size, Trends, Global Growth, Insights And Forecast Research Report 2025 - The Daily Philadelphian - November 16th, 2020
- Mesenchymal stem cells in therapy of coronavirus disease 2019 - a review - DocWire News - November 16th, 2020
- Global cryotherapy market size to reach USD 6.72 billion by 2026 - GlobeNewswire - November 16th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 Future Growth Factors and Opportunities by 2025 - PRnews Leader - November 16th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 Trends, Growth Insight, Share, Competitive Analysis, Statistics, Regional and Global Industry Forecast To 2025 - PRnews... - November 16th, 2020
- BeyondSpring Announces Positive Topline Results from its PROTECTIVE-2 Phase 3 Registrational Trial of Plinabulin in Combination with Pegfilgrastim for... - November 16th, 2020
- Stem Cell Banking Market To See Massive Growth By 2027| Cryo-Save AG, StemCyte India Therapeutics, SMART CELLS PLUS, Vita 34, LifeCell - PRnews Leader - November 9th, 2020
- It's time for Kentucky to talk to expectant parents about benefits of cord blood banking - Courier Journal - November 9th, 2020
- Global Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 : Analysis of Expansion Strategy on Industry, Growth Factors and Expected CAGR Of Top Leaders, Upcoming... - November 9th, 2020
- Stem Cell Banking Market 2020 analysis with Key Players, Applications, Trends and Forecasts by 2028|Esperite, Caladrius Biosciences, Via Cord, CBR... - November 9th, 2020
- Doctors Consider Convalescent T Cell Therapy for COVID-19 - The Scientist - November 7th, 2020
- Canine Stem Cell Therapy Market Analysis, Latest Trends and Regional Growth Forecast by Types and Applications 2020 - TechnoWeekly - November 7th, 2020
- Cancer Stem Cell Therapy Market: Industry Trends and Developments 2020-2025 - Zenit News - November 7th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020: Size, Professional Survey, and Forecast to 2025 - PRnews Leader - November 7th, 2020
- The Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells market to grow in the wake of incorporation of the latest technology - The Think Curiouser - November 7th, 2020
- Novel Targeted Drugs are Changing the Treatment of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma - Curetoday.com - November 7th, 2020
- Equillium Announces Positive Interim Data of Itolizumab in the First-line Treatment of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease - GlobeNewswire - November 7th, 2020
- Orchard Therapeutics Announces New OTL-201 Clinical Data in Sanfilippo Syndrome Type A (MPS-IIIA) Accepted for Oral Presentation at 62nd American... - November 7th, 2020
- bluebird bio to Present Data from Gene and Cell Therapy Programs During the 62nd American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition -... - November 7th, 2020
- Voters approve stem cell research bonds, but other health care measures defeated - State of Reform - State of Reform - November 5th, 2020
- Stem cells key to ALS therapy - Agoura Hills Acorn - November 5th, 2020
- Development and validation of a novel stem cell subtype for bladder cancer based on stem genomic profiling. - UroToday - November 5th, 2020
- New-onset Post-transplant Diabetes and Therapy in Long-term Survivors After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation - DocWire News - November 5th, 2020
- Emerging Trends in Global Canine Stem Cell Therapy Market Report 2020,Deeply Analyzes Share, Types, Applications and Future Demands by Key Players-... - November 5th, 2020
- Dr. Braunschweig on Selecting Between Transplant and CAR T-Cell Therapy in DLBCL - OncLive - November 5th, 2020
- Canine Stem Cell Therapy Market Size, Share Analysis by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application to 2026 - PRnews Leader - November 5th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Insights Global Analysis and Forecast by (2020 2027) - The Think Curiouser - November 5th, 2020
- Animal Stem Cell Therapy Consumption Market To Observe Exponential Growth By 2020-2027 | Verified Market Research - Eurowire - November 5th, 2020
- Orchard Therapeutics' gene therapy Strimvelis linked to a leukemia case - FiercePharma - November 5th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020: Potential Growth, Challenges, and Know the Companies List Could Potentially Benefit or Loose out From the Impact of... - November 5th, 2020
- Animal Stem Cell Therapy Market Future Demand Analysis with Forecast 2020 to 2027 - PRnews Leader - November 5th, 2020
- Genmab Announces that Janssen has Submitted a Type II Variation Application to the European Medicines Agency for use of Subcutaneous DARZALEX... - November 5th, 2020
- Actinium Announces Two Oral Presentations Featuring Data and Findings from the Phase 3 SIERRA Trial of Iomab-B at the 62nd American Society of... - November 5th, 2020