Allogeneic stem cell transplantation involves transferring the stem cells from a healthy person (the donor) to your body after high-intensity chemotherapy or radiation.
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is used to cure some patients who:
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be a high-risk procedure. The high-conditioning regimens are meant to severely or completely impair your ability to make stem cells and you will likely experience side effects during the days you receive high-dose conditioning radiation or chemotherapy. The goals of high-conditioning therapy are to:
The immune system and the blood system are closely linked and can't be separated from each other. Because of this, allogeneic transplantation means that not only the donor's blood system but also his or her immune system is transferred. As a result, these adverse effects are possible:
The immune reaction, or GVHD, is treated by administering drugs to the patient after the transplant that reduce the ability of the donated immune cells to attack and injure the patient's tissues.SeeGraft Versus Host Disease.
Allogeneic stem cell transplants for patients who are older or have overall poor health are relatively uncommon. This is because the pre-transplant conditioning therapy is generally not well tolerated by such patients, especially those with poorly functioning internal organs. However,reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantsmay be an appropriate treatment for some older or sicker patients.
One goal of allogeneic stem cell transplant is to cause the T lymphocytes in the donor's blood or marrow to take hold (engraft) and grow in the patient's marrow. Sometimes the T lymphocytes attack the cancer cells. When this happens, it's called graft versus tumor (GVT) effect (also called graft versus cancer effect). The attack makes it less likely that the disease will return. This effect is more common in myeloid leukemias than it is in other blood cancers.
Unfortunately, T lymphocytes are the same cells that causegraft versus host disease(GVHD). Because of this serious and sometimes life-threatening side effect, doctors in certain cases want to decrease the number of T lymphocytes to be infused with the stem cells. This procedure, called T-lymphocyte depletion, is currently being studied by researchers. The technique involves treating the stem cells collected for transplant with agents that reduce the number of T lymphocytes.
The aim of T-lymphocyte depletion is to lessen GVHD's incidence and severity. However, it can also cause increased rates of graft rejection, a decreased GVT effect and a slower immune recovery. Doctors must be careful about the number of T lymphocytes removed when using this technique.
Stem cell selection is another technique being studied in clinical trials that can reduce the number of T lymphocytes that a patient receives. Because of specific features on the outer coat of stem cells, doctors can selectively remove stem cells from a cell mixture. This technique produces a large number of stem cells and fewer other cells, including T lymphocytes.
If you're considering allogeneic stem cell transplantation, you'll need a bone marrow donor. First, you and your siblings, if any, will have your blood or a scraping from your inside cheek tested to determine tissue type. A sibling has the potential to match you most closely because you both received your genes from the same parents.
A lab technician examines the surface of the sample tissue cells to identify the proteins that give everyone his or her own unique tissue type, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). If the HLA on the donor cells are identical (from identical twins, for example) or similar (such as those from siblings), the transplant is more likely to be successful. On average, you have a one in four chance of having the same HLA type as a sibling. Many patients, therefore, don't have a sibling with the same tissue type.
If a brother or sister doesn't provide a match, your doctor will search registries of volunteer donors such as theNational Marrow Donor Programfor an unrelated donor that matches your tissue type. A donor who's not related to you but who has a similar tissue type is called a matched unrelated donor (MUD).
Stem cells for transplantation are collected from three sources:
Before stem cells are collected from blood or bone marrow, the donor must undergo a thorough physical exam and blood testing for hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency disease (HIV) and other infectious agents or viruses.
The most common source of stem cells for transplant is peripheral blood, the blood that flows throughout our veins and arteries.
Bone marrow normally releases a small number of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) into the bloodstream. To obtain enough PBSCs for a transplant, the donor takes a white cell growth factor, such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) drug, which increases the number of stem cells by drawing them out of the marrow and into the bloodstream. When a patient's own stem cells are used, both G-CSF and the chemotherapy used to treat the disease usually increase PBSCs. In patients who have myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the drug plerixafor (Mozobil) can be used to mobilize their own stem cells.
The blood is removed from the donor and the cells collected using a process called apheresis, which involves placing a needle in the donor's vein, usually in the arm, similar to administering a blood test. The donor's blood is pumped through an apheresis machine, which separates the blood into four components: red cells, plasma, white cells and platelets. The white cells and platelets, which contain the stem cells, are collected, while the red cells and plasma are returned to the donor. It can take one to two sessions of apheresis to collect enough blood from a MUD. If you are your own donor, it may take more than two sessions.
If enough stem cells can't be retrieved from apheresis, they can be removed directly from the bone marrow. This requires the donor to undergo a minor outpatient surgical procedure.
While the donor is under anesthesia, the surgeon inserts a hollow needle into the donor's pelvic bones just below the waist and removes liquid marrow. This is done a number of times until several pints of marrow are collected. The donor can expect to stay in the hospital for six to eight hours after the procedure to recover from the anesthesia and the acute pain at the needle insertion sites. He or she may feel some lower back soreness for a few days afterward. The donor's body naturally replaces the marrow soon after the procedure. Red cells are also removed, and the donor may experience anemia, which is often treated with iron supplements.
The marrow that's removed (harvested) passes through a series of filters to remove bone or tissue fragments and is then placed in a plastic bag from which it can be infused into the recipient's vein. The marrow is usually given to the patient within a few hours and almost always within 24 hours. If necessary, however, marrow can be frozen and stored and will remain suitable for use for years. If the transplant is autologous, the marrow is usually frozen while the patient undergoes intensive chemotherapy.
A rich source of stem cells for blood cancer patients are the stored stem cells collected from the umbilical cord and placenta after a baby is born, called the cord blood unit. Parents may choose to have the cord blood unit collected after delivery. Healthy parents with healthy children and no transplant candidate in the family can choose to donate their newborn's cord blood to cord blood banks or research programs at participating hospitals. Parents with a child or a family member who could be a candidate for transplantation should discuss with their doctor the potential benefits of saving their newborn's cord blood for possible family use.
Advantages of Using Cord Blood
The advantages of using cord blood stem cells instead of donor peripheral blood or donor marrow stem cells include:
Disadvantages of Using Cord Blood
There can be disadvantages of using cord blood stem cells as well:
The decrease in marrow function often begins to take effect by the second or third day after an allogeneic stem cell infusion. You'll be kept in a protected environment to reduce contact with infectious agents. Generally within two to four weeks after the transplant, the engraftment of donated cells will be apparent from the appearance of normal white cells in your blood. You'll receive periodic transfusions of red cells and platelets until your marrow function has been restored by the transplanted stem cells.
Your doctor will carefully monitor you with physical exams, blood chemistry tests, imaging studies and other tests to ensure that your heart, lungs, kidneys, liver and other major organs are functioning normally. You'll need drugs to prevent GVHD, in addition to blood transfusions. If you're suffering from a poor appetite or diarrhea, you may need to be fed intravenously or through a duodenal tube (called hyperalimentation) to ensure you get adequate nutrition.
Continue reading here:
Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation | Leukemia and ...
- Stem Cell Therapy Global Market Report 2021: COVID-19 Growth And Change To 2030 - Yahoo Finance - May 3rd, 2021
- Stem cell therapy for COPD: Cost, effectiveness, and more - Medical News Today - May 3rd, 2021
- Thomas Smeenk on Hemostemix's autologous stem cell therapy technology and why some call it 'the fountain of youth' - InvestorIntel - May 3rd, 2021
- Mesoblast says its stem cell treatment saved lives of severely ill COVID patients - Stockhead - May 3rd, 2021
- Antiviral T cells protected, viable as off-the-shelf treatment for painful complication stem cells - Microbioz India - May 3rd, 2021
- Investigating CAR T-Cell Therapy for Use in Different Disease Types - Targeted Oncology - May 3rd, 2021
- Should scientists be allowed to grow human embryos in a dish beyond 14 days? Is it scientifically important or morally wrong? - USA TODAY - May 3rd, 2021
- Hope, hype and exploitation the wild history of stem cell science - ABC News - May 3rd, 2021
- Brave New World is being reinvented with synthetic embryosand the right reasons - SYFY WIRE - May 3rd, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Trends Evaluation 2021 By Leading Players Updates, Consumer-Demand, Key Strategies, Consumption, Industry Development, Market... - May 3rd, 2021
- STEM NOLA Teams with Obatala Science & CellSpring to Expose Students to Careers and Medical Research at Biotech Startups - PRNewswire - May 3rd, 2021
- Breakthrough gene therapies in sight | UNC-Chapel Hill - UNC Chapell Hill - May 3rd, 2021
- FDA's Abecma Approval a 'Great Blessing' for Patients with Multiple Myeloma - Curetoday.com - May 3rd, 2021
- Enhanced inhibition of tumor growth using TRAIL-overexpressing adipose-derived stem cells in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent CPT-11 in... - May 3rd, 2021
- Global Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020-2027 Trends, industry vertical, along with the geography, delivering valuable insights | Reportspedia Clark... - May 3rd, 2021
- Rheumatoid Arthritis Stem Cell Therapy Market Report 2021 by Global Key Players, Types, Applications, Countries, Size, Forecast to 2027 Clark County... - May 3rd, 2021
- CRISPRoff Reversible Epigenome Editing Method Could Enable Safer, More Precise Therapeutics - GenomeWeb - May 3rd, 2021
- Cell Therapy Market To Expand At An expeditious Growth Rate From 2021-2027 | Thermo Fisher Scientific, Nanofiber Solutions, Advanced Biomatrix,... - May 3rd, 2021
- FTC continues to crack down on companies peddling fake COVID treatments and cures - HamletHub - May 3rd, 2021
- ThermoGenesis : The History of Cell and Gene Therapy - marketscreener.com - April 18th, 2021
- Russell Health Honored in Global Business Leaders Magazine's '20 Leading Companies of the Year 2021' - PRNewswire - April 18th, 2021
- Durable B-ALL Control With Allogeneic Transplant After CAR T-Cell Therapy - Cancer Therapy Advisor - April 18th, 2021
- CRISPR lauds easy scale-out of cell therapy - BioProcess Insider - BioProcess Insider - April 18th, 2021
- NeoProgen, Inc. Receives First Granted Patent for Method to Treat Cardiac Conditions using Neonatal Heart-derived Medicinal Signaling Cells (nMSCs)... - April 18th, 2021
- CRISPR gene therapy for sickle cell disease approved by the FDA - BioNews - April 18th, 2021
- Man's heart healed by stem cell therapy and love of an old flame - Leeds Live - April 18th, 2021
- Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market Professional Report 2021 Witness Robust Expansion by 2026 SoccerNurds - SoccerNurds - April 18th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Analysis 2021: Size, Share, Sales, Growth, Revenue, Type, Application & Forecast To 2027 SoccerNurds - SoccerNurds - April 18th, 2021
- Mastitis therapy explored | AG | kmaland.com - KMAland - April 18th, 2021
- CAR T-Cell Therapy Enters the Arena in Multiple Myeloma With Ongoing Research Ahead - OncLive - April 18th, 2021
- Leukemia Cutis: Symptoms and Treatment - Healthline - April 18th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market is Set to Witness Impressive Growth | Top Players Osiris Therapeutics, Inc. (US), MEDIPOST Co., Ltd. KSU | The Sentinel... - April 18th, 2021
- Global Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 SWOT Analysis, Growth Rate, and Market Share By Type, Application and Global Forecast 2027 - Los Hijos de la... - April 18th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Potential Growth, Size, Share, Demand and Analysis of Key Players Research Forecasts to 2025 - The Courier - March 8th, 2021
- Animal Stem Cell Therapy Market Size, Industry Analysis, Growth Factors, Trends, and Regional Forecast to 2027 - The Courier - March 8th, 2021
- Pericardial Injection Effective, Less Invasive Way to Get Regenerative Therapies to Heart - NC State News - March 8th, 2021
- Biomarkers Help Predict the Role of Chemotherapy in Biologic Aging - OncLive - March 8th, 2021
- Glial Cell Discovery Could Point the Way to Motor Neuron Disease Therapies - Technology Networks - March 8th, 2021
- Mouth Sores from Chemo: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments - Healthline - February 19th, 2021
- ThermoGenesis Holdings Begins a Year of Celebration of its 35th Anniversary in the Cell Banking and Cell Therapy Industry - PRNewswire - February 19th, 2021
- Meet the women hoping to recruit more stem cells donors from Black communities - CTV News - February 19th, 2021
- CAR T-Cell Therapy Carves Out a Role in Multiple Myeloma - OncLive - February 19th, 2021
- AI project to power the future of stem cell manufacturing - TechCentral.ie - February 17th, 2021
- Promising Results for Stem Cell Treatment of Degenerative ... - February 14th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy for Heart Disease - Cleveland Clinic - February 14th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke Recovery | University of ... - February 14th, 2021
- Stem Cell Treatment: Future of Modern Medicine | Science Times - February 14th, 2021
- Researchers may have found a miracle cure for baldness - BGR - February 14th, 2021
- Types of leukemia: Prevalence, treatment options, and prognosis - Medical News Today - February 14th, 2021
- Jasper Therapeutics Announces Launch of New Clinical Trial with National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to Evaluate JSP191 in Sickle Cell Disease -... - February 14th, 2021
- Global Stem Cell Therapy Market Set to Reach USD 214.5 Million by 2024 - The Courier - February 14th, 2021
- Keep it Flowing: Combating COVID-19 Blood Shortages in Cancer Treatment - Curetoday.com - February 14th, 2021
- Network-based screen in iPSC-derived cells reveals therapeutic candidate for heart valve disease - Science - February 14th, 2021
- AlloVir Research Presented at the 2021 Transplantation & Cellular Therapy Meeting Digital Experience - Business Wire - February 14th, 2021
- Orchard Therapeutics talks the benefits of HSC therapy - BioProcess Insider - February 14th, 2021
- Protein Discovery in the Development of New Hearing Hair Cells Could Lead to Treatments for Hearing Loss - SciTechDaily - February 7th, 2021
- Stem cells efficacy confirmed in treating ototoxic hearing loss - Korea Biomedical Review - February 4th, 2021
- Groundbreaking Trial Shows Umbilical-Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Infusions Save Lives of Sickest COVID-19 Patients - HospiMedica - January 22nd, 2021
- Massive Growth in Canine Stem Cell Therapy Market Set to Witness Huge Growth by 2027| VETSTEM BIOPHARMA, Cell Therapy Sciences, Regeneus, Aratana... - January 22nd, 2021
- Autologous stem cell transplantation versus bortezomib for the first line treatment of systemic light chain amyloidosis in the UK - DocWire News - January 22nd, 2021
- Promising Steps Toward Retinal Cell Transplants to Fight Blindness - HealthDay News - January 22nd, 2021
- Hemostemix Announces the Bread Contract with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade & Development Canada - InvestorIntel - January 22nd, 2021
- Trending News on Targeted Oncology, Week of January 22, 2021 - Targeted Oncology - January 22nd, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Size, Growth Opportunities, Trends, Key Players and Forecast to 2027 - The Courier - January 22nd, 2021
- Time To Book Profit In Fate Therapeutics Stock After A 5x Rally? - Forbes - January 22nd, 2021
- Reid Merryman, MD, on Study Findings Investigating Prognostic Value of ctDNA for Patients with DLBCL - Cancer Network - January 22nd, 2021
- Co-founder Thomas Smeenk on the benefits of Hemostemix autologous stem cell therapy - InvestorIntel - January 12th, 2021
- Covid-19 Impact On Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 Huge Potential in Future Growth by 2027 | Magellan, Medipost Co., Ltd, Osiris Therapeutics, Inc.,... - January 12th, 2021
- Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market Analysis and Forecast, 2020-2026 Coherent Market Insights | BioRestorative Therapies, Inc., Celltex... - January 12th, 2021
- New COVID-19 Treatment Uses Stem Cells - Freethink - January 12th, 2021
- Creative Medical Technology Holdings Files Investigational New Drug Application (IND) with FDA for Treatment of Stroke using ImmCelz Regenerative... - January 12th, 2021
- Global Cell Freezing Media for Cell Therapy Market 2020 Dynamics Analysis, Size Witness Growth Acceleration During 2025 - KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper - January 12th, 2021
- Gamida Cell to Present Full Data from Phase 3 Study of Omidubicel at TCT, the Combined Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Meetings of ASTCT and... - January 12th, 2021
- Cate Dyer of StemExpress is Named Businesswoman of the Year! - PRNewswire - January 12th, 2021
- Adocia Files Patent on a Hydrogel Scaffold for Cell Therapy in the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes - Business Wire - January 12th, 2021
- Gene Therapy Market Estimated to Record Highest CAGR by 2024 - KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper - January 12th, 2021
- Stem cell treatment corrects skull shape and restores brain function in mouse model of childhood disorder - National Institutes of Health - January 9th, 2021
- Doctors Make Medical Breakthrough In Treating Severe Cases Of COVID - CBS New York - January 9th, 2021
- Global Stem Cell Therapy Market Report 2020: Market to Recover and Reach $14.76 Billion in 2023 at a CAGR of 19.62% - Forecast to 2030 - Yahoo Finance - January 9th, 2021
- Engineered stem cells that evade immune detection could boost cell therapy and I-O - FierceBiotech - January 9th, 2021