Treatment options for chronic myeloid leukemia often include targeted therapies. Treatment plans and their effectiveness may depend on the phase of the condition.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a slow-growing type of blood cancer that can affect white and red blood cells and platelets. It occurs in about 15% of adults who receive a leukemia diagnosis.
CML has three phases: chronic, accelerated, and blast.
The different phases can have an impact on a persons overall prognosis and how a doctor and the person approach the treatment plan.
This article discusses common treatments for CML and the differences between the phases of the condition.
The chronic phase is the earliest stage of CML.
In this phase, the cancer grows and spreads most slowly, and people typically experience few or no symptoms.
Moreover, during this stage of CML, people have less than 10% blast cells, which are cancerous immature white blood cells.
Most people receive a diagnosis of CML in the chronic phase.
During the chronic phase, the first line of treatment is tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A doctor may try one or more TKIs, such as:
If a specific TKI is ineffective, a doctor may change a persons dose or use a different medication. On rare occasions, a doctor may recommend a bone marrow transplant.
During treatment, a doctor will need to check the progress regularly. To do this, they will need to draw blood and check for levels of BCR-ABL, a cancer-causing gene, every 36 months. A persons doctor should review the results of the tests with the person.
A 2017 long-term study found that the 10-year survival rate of people who received a diagnosis of chronic phase CML was about 83% when they took imatinib.
The American Cancer Society states that about 70% of people have a complete response to TKI treatments within the first year.
If the first treatment does not prove effective, a doctor may consider the following:
Treatment following a stem cell transplant can vary based on the response a persons body has to the transplant.
If the persons body does not reject the transplant, a doctor may try to have the immune system attack the cancer cells by either reducing the amount of immunosuppressors or introducing donor cells.
The second phase of CML is the accelerated phase, during which blast counts are higher, and symptoms are likely to develop.
In addition, during this stage, a person has increased cancer activity.
According to the American Cancer Society, a doctor will often diagnose the accelerated phase if one or more of the following occur:
A person with accelerated phase CML is also more likely to experience symptoms such as:
The American Cancer Society states treatment for the accelerated phase will be similar to that for the chronic phase. The main difference is that in the second phase of CML, long-term success with treatment is less likely.
Treatment options, which will depend on what doctors have already used, may include:
It is difficult to determine the life expectancy of a person who receives a diagnosis of CML in the accelerated phase.
The American Cancer Society indicates a person is less likely to have a long-term response to the treatment.
However, researchers are studying new therapies, which may help prolong the life expectancy of people with a diagnosis of accelerated CML.
The blast phase is the most advanced stage of CML.
People with a blast phase CML diagnosis have at least 20% blast cells in their blood. At this stage, the cancer has also spread beyond the blood into organs or other tissues.
Additionally, a person will likely experience fever, small appetite, and weight loss.
Treatment will vary between people depending on the cancer and the type of treatment a person has already undergone.
A cure for CML in the blast phase is unlikely. That is why doctors will possibly recommend medication and therapy to help a person feel better and relieve their symptoms.
According to the American Cancer Society, a doctor may recommend newer TKIs, such as bosutinib, dasatinib, or nilotinib. Chemotherapy drugs may be effective.
If treatment is successful, a doctor may recommend a stem cell transplant.
With newer therapies, the exact survival rate of people with a blast phase CML diagnosis is not clear.
People with blast phase CML are less likely to respond well to treatment and to recover from their condition than people with a chronic phase CML.
A 2018 study reports that people with CML whose cancer cells have the T315I mutation are less likely to respond to both older and newer TKIs.
As a result, doctors will likely recommend a different strategy, such as:
CML is a type of cancer. There are several potential therapies a doctor may recommend a person undergo to treat the cancer, slow its growth, or improve a persons quality of life.
Below, we describe some of the most common approaches.
Targeted therapies are medications that identify and attack cancer cells based on certain markers.
CML contains BCR-ABL, a gene that is not present in healthy cells. The gene causes the production of BCR-ABL protein, which is a type of tyrosine kinase. Targeted therapies for CML contain TKIs that stop the growth and reproduction of cancer cells with the protein.
According to the American Cancer Society, TKIs are a frequently used treatment option in the chronic phase of CML. However, doctors may also use them in later phases of the condition.
Interferon therapy is the most common treatment for CML.
It recreates interferons, a substance the immune system produces naturally. The therapy helps prevent the growth and division of cancer cells.
Chemotherapy, or chemo, which doctors use to treat many different types of cancer, slows or stops the growth and division of cancer cells.
It may cure the cancer, reduce the likelihood of it returning, or slow or stop its growth. It may also improve symptoms.
Chemotherapy used to be the primary treatment for CML. However, TKIs are now the first line of treatment.
Doctors will typically only recommend chemotherapy if a person does not respond well to TKIs or is undergoing a stem cell transplant.
Radiation therapy uses high doses of waves of energy to destroy cancer cells. The damaged cancer cells can no longer reproduce, and die as a result.
The National Cancer Institute states that it can take several weeks of treatment to damage cancer cells enough for them to start dying off. It could then take a few weeks or months for the cells to die off completely.
However, according to the American Cancer Society, radiation is not a common treatment for CML.
Doctors may use it to reduce the size of the spleen if the cancer has spread there, to treat bone pain resulting from bone damage. They may also use it during stem cell transplant throughout the body.
Surgery is not a typical treatment option for CML. That is because the cancer can spread throughout a persons bone marrow and other organs.
Doctors will typically only recommend surgery to remove the spleen if the cancer has affected it.
A stem cell transplant involves destroying cancer cells and some healthy cells in the bone marrow, where the leukemia starts.
Once the cancer is destroyed, a doctor replaces the cells with healthy bone marrow cells that a donor provided. Usually, doctors offer this treatment option to younger people who have a matched tissue donor.
While this is the only treatment that can cure CML, it has several associated risks, including infection and graft-versus-host disease.
A person with a diagnosed CML may wish to try alternative or complementary therapies to help alleviate symptoms. They should seek guidance from a doctor to find the most suitable therapies.
According to a 2016 study, traditional Chinese herbal medicine may be effective in managing CML when people use it in conjunction with Gleevec.
However, a person should speak with their doctor about this type of treatment before finding a licensed practitioner of traditional Chinese medicine.
Another study looked at several different herbs and fruits for the treatment of leukemia. Although the study indicates more research is necessary, it reports positive results when using herbs such as ginger, garlic, and carrots.
CML is a slow-growing type of leukemia that develops in the bone marrow.
Experts distinguish three phases of the condition: chronic, accelerated, and blast. Treatments across the three phases are often similar and involve using TKIs.
A person can work with their doctor to create the best treatment options for them. If the treatment is ineffective, a doctor may recommend other therapies to achieve remission or improve a persons quality of life.
Go here to see the original:
Treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML): By phase and more - Medical News Today
- Researchers investigate whether stem cell therapy is safe and effective for treatment-resistant bipolar disease - Newswise - April 18th, 2021
- Stem Cell and Regenerative Therapy Market: Cell Therapy Segment to Dominate Global Market - BioSpace - April 18th, 2021
- First in the nation, FDA-approved Phase II mesenchymal stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease begins - Newswise - April 18th, 2021
- Cellino Biotech developing tech to help scale stem cell therapies - MedCity News - April 18th, 2021
- Stem cell treatment needed to fight the good fight - Victoria Lookout - April 18th, 2021
- Being bionic: the future of regenerative medicine - Toronto Star - April 18th, 2021
- Chemical conversion of human epidermal stem cells into intestinal goblet cells for modeling mucus-microbe interaction and therapy - Science Advances - April 18th, 2021
- Andres Isaias Combining Innovation and Excellence - Influencive - April 18th, 2021
- A Massive New Gene Editing Project Is Out to Crush Alzheimer's - Singularity Hub - April 18th, 2021
- Antibiotic Use Prior to Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation May Be Linked to Graft Vs Host Disease - Hematology Advisor - April 18th, 2021
- Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) Treatment Market Is Rising With Post COVID-19 Impact Analysis, Development, CAGR - Global Banking And Finance Review - April 18th, 2021
- The Recovery Room: News beyond the pandemic April 16 - Medical News Today - April 18th, 2021
- The Governments Watchful Eye on Fraud Stemming from Stem Cell Therapy - JD Supra - April 4th, 2021
- Uprooting Cancer: Innovative Hydrogel Rapidly Reverts Cancer Cells Back to Cancer Stem Cells - SciTechDaily - April 4th, 2021
- Multiple sclerosis: Recent research on causes and treatments - Medical News Today - April 4th, 2021
- First CAR T-Cell Therapy for Multiple Myeloma: Abecma - Medscape - April 4th, 2021
- Vitro Biopharma Retains Leading Health Care Executive as Acting Director of Regulatory Affairs & Director - Benzinga - April 4th, 2021
- Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for therapy-related myeloid neoplasms following treatment of a lymphoid malignancy - DocWire News - April 4th, 2021
- Orca-T Offers an Alternative to HSCT With Improved Patient Experience - OncLive - April 4th, 2021
- Russell Health Highlighted in the Silicon Review's '50 Leading Companies of the Year 2021' - PRNewswire - April 4th, 2021
- Gracell Biotechnologies Announces Enrollment of First Patient in Registrational Phase 1/2 Clinical Study for GC007g, an Allogeneic CAR-T Cell Therapy... - April 4th, 2021
- LGL Leukemia: Overview, Symptoms, and Treatment - Healthline - April 4th, 2021
- Funding the Next Generation of Cancer Therapies - Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - April 4th, 2021
- RenovaCare Announces Organizational Changes and Appointment of New Officers - GlobeNewswire - April 4th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market expected to reach USD 16.51 Billion by 2025 KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper - KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper - March 8th, 2021
- Creative Medical Technology Holdings Publishes Efficacy in Pain Reduction and Mobility in Patients with Disc Degenerative Disc Using StemSpine... - March 8th, 2021
- New Controversy for Stem Cell Therapy That Repairs Spinal Cords - The Great Courses Daily News - March 8th, 2021
- Cell Therapy for Cartilage Regeneration Gets a Boost With Hyaluronic Acid Enriched Chondrocytes in a 3D Tissue Engineering Platform - Business Wire - March 8th, 2021
- Scar-Forming Cells Switch to Producing New Neurons that Promote Functional Recovery in Mice after Spinal Cord Injury - Genetic Engineering &... - March 8th, 2021
- Moderna Hires Harvard Stem Cell Researcher Jonathan Hoggatt as Director of Hematology: What You Need to Know - Yahoo Finance - March 8th, 2021
- Stem Cell Banking Market Report 2021 | Growth and Opportunities Analysis - BioSpace - February 19th, 2021
- Global Cell Therapy Biomanufacturing Market (2020 to 2025) - Featuring Lonza Group, Merck & Novartis Among Others - ResearchAndMarkets.com -... - February 19th, 2021
- Off-the-Shelf NK Immunotherapy Is Safe and Promising in B-Cell NHL With Chemotherapy and Transplant - Targeted Oncology - February 17th, 2021
- Braunschweig Makes the Case for Earlier Use of CAR T-Cell Therapy in DLBCL - OncLive - February 17th, 2021
- Creative Medical Technology Holdings Files Patent on Prevention of Organ Transplant Rejection using ImmCelz - PRNewswire - February 17th, 2021
- Lineage to Host Virtual OPC1 Investor & Analyst Day on February 22, 2021 - Business Wire - February 17th, 2021
- Novartis, Gates Foundation pursue a simpler gene therapy for sickle cell - STAT - February 17th, 2021
- CRISPR Therapeutics Provides Business Update and Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2020 Financial Results - GlobeNewswire - February 17th, 2021
- Equillium Presents Positive Interim Clinical Data of Itolizumab in First-line Treatment of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease at the 2021 Transplantation... - February 14th, 2021
- Zebrafish reveal regenerative protein that could inspire new treatments for muscle-wasting diseases and aging - FierceBiotech - February 11th, 2021
- Stem cell study illuminates the cause of an inherited heart disorder | Penn Today - Penn Today - February 11th, 2021
- Neurons from patient blood cells enable researchers to test treatments for genetic brain disease - Brown University - February 11th, 2021
- Therapeutic Solutions International Acquires Stem Cell Therapy That Successfully Completed FDA Double Blind Placebo Controlled Efficacy Study for Lung... - February 11th, 2021
- The Role and Activation Mechanism of TAZ in Hierarchical Microgroove/N | IJN - Dove Medical Press - February 11th, 2021
- Stem Cell Therapy Market: Top 5 trends fueling the industry revenue through 2025 - BioSpace - February 9th, 2021
- Magenta Therapeutics to Present Additional Data from Phase 1 MGTA-145 Stem Cell Mobilization Program and Preclinical Updates on Targeting Conditioning... - February 9th, 2021
- Gamida Cell Presents Efficacy and Safety Results of Phase 3 Study of Omidubicel in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies at the 2021 TCT Meetings of... - February 9th, 2021
- Creative Medical Technology Holdings Recruits Internationally Renowned Kidney Expert to Scientific Advisory Board - PRNewswire - February 9th, 2021
- Jasper Therapeutics Announces Positive Data from Phase 1 Clinical Trial of JSP191 as Targeted Stem Cell Conditioning Agent in Patients with... - February 9th, 2021
- USC scientist Ya-Wen Chen receives American Lung Association grant to advance stem cell-based lung therapies - USC News - February 9th, 2021
- [Full text] Successful Use of Nivolumab in a Patient with Head and Neck Cancer Aft | OTT - Dove Medical Press - February 9th, 2021
- Responses to Liso-Cel Not Influenced by Prior Treatment With Anti-CD19 Agents in R/R Large B-Cell Lymphoma - Targeted Oncology - February 9th, 2021
- Drugs that trip cellular alarm could help clear out hibernating HIV - New Atlas - February 9th, 2021
- Leukemia in children: Symptoms, causes, treatment, outlook, and more - Medical News Today - February 6th, 2021
- Stem Cell Study Illuminates the Cause of a Devastating Inherited Heart Disorder - Newswise - February 4th, 2021
- iSpecimen expands offerings to support regenerative medicine, adding cryopreserved stem and immune cells to existing biospecimens available through... - February 4th, 2021
- CU Researchers Win Prize from National Eye Institute - CU Anschutz Today - February 4th, 2021
- Leading Urologist Doubles Down on CaverStem Regenerative Stem Cell Procedure for Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in Men - BioSpace - January 25th, 2021
- Research Assistant - Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology job with NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE | 239606 - Times Higher Education (THE) - December 24th, 2020
- Getting to the root of why hair goes gray - messenger-inquirer - December 24th, 2020
- How the COVID Virus Induces Inflammation, Cytokine Storm and Stress in Infected Lung Cells - SciTechDaily - December 24th, 2020
- Medicine by Design symposium highlights importance of convergence in regenerative medicine and human health - News@UofT - December 22nd, 2020
- 2020 in Neuroscience, Longevity, and AIand What's to Come - Singularity Hub - December 22nd, 2020
- Updated Findings Show Continued Efficacy for CAR T-Cell Therapy in Heavily Pretreated Myeloma - Targeted Oncology - December 14th, 2020
- Cell Isolation/ Separation Market worth $15.0 billion by 2025 - Exclusive Report by MarketsandMarkets - PRNewswire - December 14th, 2020
- Cord blood banks sell parents on promising stem cell research, but with no guarantees - The Arizona Republic - December 8th, 2020
- Procyon Technologies LLC and Novo Nordisk A/S to Collaborate on the Development of a Stem-Cell Based Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes - PRNewswire - December 8th, 2020
- Genetic engineering transformed stem cells into working mini-livers that extended the life of mice with liver disease - The Conversation US - December 8th, 2020
- Hadassah Medical Center and Neurogenesis Announce Groundbreaking Results from a Phase 2 Study in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis treated with NG-01... - December 8th, 2020
- Worldwide Cell Culture Industry to 2025 - Featuring Thermo Fisher Scientific, Corning Incorporated and Eppendorf Among Others - GlobeNewswire - December 8th, 2020
- The cell culturemarket is projected to reach USD 33.1 billion by 2025 from USD 19.0 billion in 2020, at a CAGR of 11.8% - GlobeNewswire - December 8th, 2020
- Treatment with Investigational LentiGlobin Gene Therapy for Sickle Cell Disease (bb1111) Results in Complete Elimination of SCD-Related Severe... - December 8th, 2020
- New DARZALEX (daratumumab) Data from GRIFFIN Study Show Deeper and Longer Responses in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma - BioSpace - December 8th, 2020
- Anatomy of a vaccine: What it takes to create a safe, effective COVID shot - University of California - December 8th, 2020
- Development of New Stem Cell Type May Lead to Advances In Regenerative Medicine - Newswise - December 3rd, 2020
- UCLA receives $7.3 million grant to build state-of-the-art facility for developing gene, cell therapies - UCLA Newsroom - December 3rd, 2020
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market in Global : Current and the Future Trends: Astellas Pharma Inc/ Ocata Therapeutics, Stemcell Technologies Inc - The... - December 3rd, 2020
- Possible Role for Comprehensive Molecular ProfilingBased Treatment Selection in Newly Diagnosed AML, Study Suggests - Cancer Therapy Advisor - December 3rd, 2020
- Nobel Prize history from the year you were born - Herald & Review - December 3rd, 2020
- 4D hires a trio of area heads as it ramps up its gene therapy pipeline - FierceBiotech - December 3rd, 2020