Human heart cells are changed by spaceflight but return to mostly normal on Earth, according to a study that examined how the human heart functions in spaceflight. The scientists were surprised as to how quickly human heart muscle cells could adapt to the environment in which they are placed.
The research team examined the cell-level cardiac function and gene expression in human heart cells that were cultured aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for 5.5 weeks. They found that heart muscle cells -- derived from stem cells -- adapted well to their environment during and after spaceflight.
The analysis, says the team, shows that exposure to microgravity altered the expression of thousands of genes, but largely normal patterns of gene expression reappeared within 10 days after returning to Earth.
These findings provide insight into how the human heart functions at the cellular level in spaceflight. This study suggests that the human heart muscle cells are very adaptable to the environment in which they are placed, including microgravity. Microgravity is an environment that is not very well understood in terms of its overall effect on the human body, and studies like this will be able to help shed light on how the cells of the body behave in space," Dr. Joseph C. Wu, Director, Stanford Cardiovascular Institute at Stanford University School of Medicine, told MEA WorldWide (MEAWW).
The researchers explain that human heart muscle cells, like the whole heart, change their functional properties in spaceflight and compensate for the apparent loss of gravity by changing their gene expression patterns at the cellular level.
"This study does not tell us how the heart as a whole changes in microgravity. There are several other types of cells in the heart that were not included in this study. We also do not know how the cells might react if they were exposed to microgravity for a longer period of time. However, these are both things we can test in the future. The results we observed in this study will allow us to focus those future studies on characteristics of the heart muscle cells we know are strongly affected by microgravity," Dr. Wu told MEAWW.
With extended stays aboard the ISS becoming commonplace, there is a need to better understand the effects of microgravity on cardiac function, say experts. Past studies have shown that spaceflight induces physiological changes in cardiac function. Astronauts on space shuttle missions have experienced reduced heart rate, lowered arterial pressure, and increased cardiac output. But to date, most cardiovascular microgravity physiology studies have been conducted either in non-human models or at tissue, organ, or systemic levels, says the team.
"The National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Twin Study demonstrated that long-term exposure to microgravity reduces mean arterial pressure and increases cardiac output. However, little is known about the role of microgravity in influencing human cardiac function at the cellular level," says the study published in 'Stem Cell Reports'.
Accordingly, the research team used human induced pluripotent stem cells to study the effects of spaceflight on human heart function.
"We studied human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). We generated hiPSC lines from three individuals by reprogramming blood cells and then differentiated them into hiPSC-CMs," says the study.
Dr. Wu explains that human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are stem cells that can be produced from a small sample of blood or skin through a process called "reprogamming".
"These hiPSCs can be then turned into almost any cell type of interest, including beating human heart muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes. Since these hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes mimic the function of true adult human heart cells, we can use them as a model for how the cells of the human heart respond to microgravity," Dr. Wu told MEAWW.
Beating hiPSC-CMs were launched to the International Space Station aboard a SpaceX spacecraft, as part of a commercial resupply service mission. Simultaneously, ground control hiPSC-CMs were cultured on Earth for comparison.
"Upon return to Earth, space-flown hiPSC-CMs showed normal structure and morphology. However, they did adapt by modifying their beating patterns and calcium recycling patterns," the findings state.
The researchers performed RNA sequencing. "These results showed that 2,635 genes were differentially expressed among flight, post-flight, and ground control samples. A comparison of the samples revealed that hiPSC-CMs adopt a unique gene expression pattern during spaceflight, which reverts to one that is similar to groundside controls upon return to normal gravity," says the study.
The findings, according to the researchers, could provide insight into cellular mechanisms that could benefit astronaut health during long-duration spaceflight, or potentially lay the foundation for new insights into improving heart health on Earth.
"We know that humans can spend months and years in space. Through decades of analyses, we know that the human heart as a whole organ changes its shape, size, and function in spaceflight. These changes are one reason why astronauts must exercise in space for hours every day to keep their heart muscles strong. While our cell-based experiments were able to confirm that changes also occur on the cellular level, we cannot directly translate this to the organ-level without further studies. The changes in our hiPSC-cardiomyocytes are not adverse effects, but rather adaptations to microgravity. The changes reflect how the cells of the human body can quickly adapt to a low gravity environment," Dr. Wu told MEAWW.
The research team now plans to test different treatments on the human heart cells to determine if they can prevent some of the changes the heart cells undergo during spaceflight.
- In Vitro Toxicology Testing Market to Exhibit Rapid Surge in Consumption in the COVID-19 Crisis 2024 - 3rd Watch News - July 4th, 2020
- Global Stem Cells Market 2019 | How The Industry Will Witness Substantial Growth In The Upcoming Years | Exclusive Report By MRE - Cole of Duty - June 30th, 2020
- 2020-2024 Global Regenerative Medicine Market with Impact Analysis of COVID-19, Production, Revenue, Demand & Applications - Apsters News - June 30th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2020 2025 - Owned - June 29th, 2020
- Citius Receives FDA Response on Pre-Investigational New Drug (PIND) Application for its Induced Mesenchymal Stem Cells (iMSCs) to Treat Acute... - June 27th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market 2020 Global Industry ... - June 20th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Analysis, Top Manufacturers, Share, Growth, Statistics, Opportunities and Forecast To 2026 - Cole of Duty - June 19th, 2020
- Stem Cell Manufacturing Market Share, Size, Trends 2020- Segments worth Observing Aiding Growth Factors | Merck Group, Becton, Dickinson And Company.... - June 19th, 2020
- Janus-Faced PCL2? Alzheimer's Risk Protein Toggles TREM2 and TLR Pathways - Alzforum - June 13th, 2020
- Here's Why Fate Therapeutics Rose 18.4% in May - The Motley Fool - June 10th, 2020
- Evera, A Harvard Consumer Biotech Company, Brings Stem Cell Banking To You - Forbes - June 10th, 2020
- Nanion Technologies and Nexel Partner to Open a New Reference Demonstration Laboratory in South Korea - Labmate Online - June 10th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Growth Dynamics ... - June 7th, 2020
- Generation of self-organized sensory ganglion organoids and retinal ganglion cells from fibroblasts - Science Advances - May 30th, 2020
- Hesperos Human-on-a-Chip System Used to Model Preclinical Stages of Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment - Business Wire - May 30th, 2020
- AgeX Therapeutics and Sernova to Collaborate to Engineer Universal Locally Immune Protected Cell Therapies for Type I Diabetes and Hemophilia A -... - May 30th, 2020
- In Vitro Toxicology Testing Market to Grow at Robust CAGR in the COVID-19 Lockdown Scenario - Cole of Duty - May 30th, 2020
- Study: Heart Problems in SMA May Be Tied to Calcium Dysregulation - SMA News Today - May 25th, 2020
- Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Market is Expected to Garner USD 14745.7 Million by The End of 2024 By Recording a CAGR of 4.8% (Impact Analysis... - May 20th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPS Cell) Applications in 2020 - May 16th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market Growth by Top Companies, Trends by Types and Application, Forecast to 2026 - Cole of Duty - May 16th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market 2020: Growing Tends ... - May 16th, 2020
- Cell Therapy Shows Promise in Parkinson's - MedPage Today - May 14th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Growth by Top Companies, Trends by Types and Application, Forecast to 2026 - Cole of Duty - May 14th, 2020
- Citius Announces Data on NoveCite Mesenchymal Stem Cells (NC-MSCs) to be Presented at the American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy (ASGCT) Annual... - May 14th, 2020
- Novel CAR NK-cell technology could lead to new treatments for lupus, other incurable diseases - Stockhouse - May 14th, 2020
- 2020 Insights on the Worldwide Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Industry - ResearchAndMarkets.com - Business Wire - May 12th, 2020
- Cell and Gene Therapy Catapult links with Japan's CiRA Foundation - PharmaTimes - May 12th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market 2020 | Growth Drivers, Challenges, Trends, Market Dynamics and Forecast to 2026 - Cole of Duty - May 9th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Overview With Detailed Analysis, Competitive Landscape, Forecast to 2026 - Weekly Wall - May 9th, 2020
- Mogrify strikes deal with US biopharma Sangamo Therapeutics - Cambridge Independent - April 28th, 2020
- How could Covid-19 and the body's immune response affect the brain? - MIT News - April 28th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Overview, Top Companies, Region, Application and Global Forecast by 2026 - Latest Herald - April 28th, 2020
- FDA Expediting Accelerated Development of Novel Therapies for COVID-19 - Yahoo Finance - April 28th, 2020
- GLOBAL TOOTH REGENERATION MARKET: INDUSTRY ANALYSIS AND FORECAST (2020-2027) - MR Invasion - April 28th, 2020
- Insights on the Cell Expansion Industry in North America to 2027 - by Product, Cell Type, Application, End-user and Country - Yahoo Finance - April 26th, 2020
- Induced pluripotent stem cells and CRISPR reversed diabetes in mice - Drug Target Review - April 24th, 2020
- Reversing diabetes with CRISPR and patient-derived stem cells - FierceBiotech - April 24th, 2020
- The integrated stress response: From mechanism to disease - Science Magazine - April 24th, 2020
- Diabetes reversed in mice with genetically edited stem cells derived from patients - Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis - April 23rd, 2020
- Business News: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Growth, Analysis and Forecast 2020 to 2025 | BlueRock Therapeutics, Corning Life Sciences, EMD... - April 23rd, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market: Industry Size, Market Status, Influencing Factors, Competition, Outlook & Forecasts to 2027 - Cole of Duty - April 23rd, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Analysis With Key Players, Applications, Trends And Forecasts To 2026 - Surfacing Magazine - April 21st, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market 2019 analysis, size, top companies, share, strategies and forecast to 2026 - WhaTech Technology and Markets News - April 21st, 2020
- Cell Therapies Can Revolutionize Treatment, Automation Needed to Scale Production - ENGINEERING.com - April 15th, 2020
- Lung epithelium model being tested as a platform for COVID-19 research - Drug Target Review - April 11th, 2020
- Fate Therapeutics' IO Collaboration with Janssen Could Yield Company $3 Billion - Clinical OMICs News - April 11th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Key Players, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, Analysis And Forecast 2025 - Science In Me - April 9th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market in 2020: Industry Overview on Global Size, Share, Future Trends, Segmentation, Demands, and Top Players... - April 9th, 2020
- Evotec Makes Move into Gene Therapy with Takeda... - Labiotech.eu - April 9th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research Pros And Cons ... - April 2nd, 2020
- Evotec Expands Its IPSC-Based Cell Therapy Platform Evocells Through Licensing Agreement with panCella - Benzinga - April 2nd, 2020
- Citius Signs Option With Novellus To License Novel Stem-Cell Therapy For ARDS - Nasdaq - April 2nd, 2020
- Anti-IL-6 Monoclonal Antibodies as Antiarrhythmic Treatment for HF - The Cardiology Advisor - April 2nd, 2020
- A New NK Cell-based Immunotherapy For Cancer Treatment - Health News Today - March 24th, 2020
- Coriell Institute for Medical Research Awarded $8.6 Million Biobanking Contract from National Institute on Aging - Newswise - March 18th, 2020
- Stem cells to help the heart - Science Magazine - March 12th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Expected to Witness the Highest Growth 202 - ITResearchBrief.com - March 12th, 2020
- SpaceX Dragon cargo ship, the last to be caught by robot arm, arrives at space station - Space.com - March 11th, 2020
- Notice of Capital and Business Alliance between Heartseed and MEDIPAL HOLDINGS | DNA RNA and Cells | News Channels - PipelineReview.com - March 11th, 2020
- NanoSurface Bio Executes Exclusive License of Heart-on-Chip Technology Launched Into Space - Business Wire - March 9th, 2020
- Eye health: Testing the safety of stem cell therapy for age-related macular degeneration - Open Access Government - March 9th, 2020
- Despite Pro-Life Claims, Stem Cell Therapy Has Very Real Benefits and Should Be Accessible - Patheos - March 6th, 2020
- Little Tissue, Big Mission: Beating Heart Tissues to Ride Aboard The ISS - Newswise - March 4th, 2020
- SpaceX set to launch Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon capsule from Cape Canaveral this week - Florida Today - March 4th, 2020
- SpaceX Targeting March 6 for Launch of its 20th Resupply Mission to International Space Station | - SpaceCoastDaily.com - February 29th, 2020
- The European Bank of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Five Years of Progress - Technology Networks - February 28th, 2020
- New study identifies trigger that turns dormant cancer stem cells into active ones - PR Web - February 26th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market in 2020: Global Industry Size, Demand, Growth & Development, Trends, Insights and Forecast until... - February 25th, 2020
- Improving shoes, showers, 3D printing: research launching to the Space Station - Space Daily - February 21st, 2020
- Argentinian cultured meat supplier on its 'all-in-one' cell line: 'We offer cells that can grow fast and reduce costs' - FoodNavigator-Latam - February 20th, 2020
- Building a 'doomsday vault' to save the kangaroo and koala from extinction - CNET - February 19th, 2020
- Surge in the Adoption of Stem Cell-Derived Cells to Fuel the Growth of the Stem Cell-Derived Cells Market Through the Assessment Period 2019 2029 -... - February 17th, 2020
- Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market to Achieve more Profitability Ratio between 2020-2025 - Chronicle 99 - February 16th, 2020
- Cell-based meat in focus: In conversation with Meatable, Finless Foods, New Age Meats - FoodNavigator-USA.com - February 11th, 2020
- Research could be step toward lab-grown eggs and sperm to treat... - ScienceBlog.com - February 10th, 2020
- First dual stem cell therapy jointly developed by City University of Hong Kong brings new hope for cardiac repair - QS WOW News - February 10th, 2020
- Chromatin accessibility analysis reveals regulatory dynamics of developing human retina and hiPSC-derived retinal organoids - Science Advances - February 10th, 2020
- AgeX Therapeutics to Collaborate with University of California, Irvine on Neural Stem Cell Research Program for Huntingtons Disease and Other... - February 4th, 2020
- 2020 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Study: Global Markets, Technologies, Applications and Companies - Yahoo Finance - February 2nd, 2020