The story so far: On Monday, October 21, at Neuroscience 2019, the Society for Neurosciences 49th annual meeting, held in Chicago, U.S., two neuroscientists warned the gathering that fellow scientists are perilously close to crossing the ethical red line of growing mini-brains or organoids in the laboratory that can perceive or feel things. In some cases, scientists have already transplanted such lab-grown brain organoid to adult animals. The transplanted organoid had integrated with the animal brain, grown new neuronal connections and responded to light. Similarly, lung organoid transplanted into mice was able to form branching airways and early alveolar structures. These are seen as a step towards potential humanisation of host animals.
Organoids are a group of cells grown in laboratories into three-dimensional, miniature structures that mimic the cell arrangement of a fully-grown organ. They are tiny (typically the size of a pea) organ-like structures that do not achieve all the functional maturity of human organs but often resemble the early stages of a developing tissue. Most organoids contain only a subset of all the cells seen in a real organ, but lack blood vessels to make them fully functional. In the case of brain organoids, scientists have been able to develop neurons and even make specific brain regions such as the cerebral cortex that closely resemble the human brain. The largest brain organoids that have been grown in the laboratory are about 4 mm in diameter.
Organoids are grown in the lab using stem cells that can become any of the specialised cells seen in the human body, or stem cells taken from the organ or adults cells that have been induced to behave like stem cells, scientifically called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Stem cells are provided with nutrients and other specific molecules to grow and become cells resembling a specific organ. The growing cells are capable of self-organising into cellular structures of a specific organ and can partly replicate complex functions of mature organs physiological processes to regeneration and being in a diseased state.
Organoids of the brain, small intestine, kidney, heart, stomach, eyes, liver, pancreas, prostate, salivary glands, and inner ear to name a few have already been developed in the laboratory.
Since the use of embryonic stem cells to grow organs of interest has been mired in controversy leading to a ban on such research, researchers have turned to generating organoids using stem cells. Researchers have been successful in generating organoids of increasing complexity and diversity. Since the organoids closely resemble mature tissues, it opens up new vistas. These include studying the complex arrangements of cells in three-dimension and their function in detail, and understanding how cells assemble into organs.
Organoids can be used to study the safety and efficacy of new drugs and also test the response of tissues to existing medicines. Organoids will bring precision medicine closer to reality by developing patient-specific treatment strategies by studying which drugs the patient is most sensitive to. Since the use of animals during drug development studies is becoming increasingly difficult, the focus has been on refining, reducing and replacing them. While scientists have been increasingly using human cell lines and other methods, such alternatives have some inherent limitations they cannot mimic the whole organ system. Organoids are a far superior alternative to cell lines.
Organoids offer new opportunities to studying proteins and genes that are critical for the development of an organ. This helps in knowing how a mutation in a specific gene causes a disease or disorder. In a study in Europe using intestinal organoids from six patients with an intestine disorder, it became possible to identify the mutation in a gene that prevented the formation of a healthy intestine. Researchers have used brain organoids to study how the Zika virus affects brain development in the embryo.
Scientists are already using stem cells taken from tumours to grow organoids that are poised to develop cancer. The ability to grow organoids using cancer stem cells allows researchers to study the genes, proteins and signalling pathways that cancer cells use to develop and grow. They are also using healthy organoids to identify and verify the gene mutations that cause cancer.
In an opinion piece in Nature, scientists argued that the largest brain that has been grown in the laboratory is only 4 mm in diameter and contains only 2-3 million cells. In comparison, an adult human brain measures 1,350 cubic centimetres, and has 86 billion neurons and another 86 billion non-neuronal cells and a similar number of non-neuronal cells. The authors argue that organoids do not have sensory inputs and sensory connections from the brain are limited. Isolated regions of the brain cannot communicate with other brain regions or generate motor signals. They wrote: Thus, the possibility of consciousness or other higher-order perceptive properties [such as the ability to feel distress] emerging seems extremely remote.
You have reached your limit for free articles this month.
Register to The Hindu for free and get unlimited access for 30 days.
Find mobile-friendly version of articles from the day's newspaper in one easy-to-read list.
Enjoy reading as many articles as you wish without any limitations.
A select list of articles that match your interests and tastes.
Move smoothly between articles as our pages load instantly.
A one-stop-shop for seeing the latest updates, and managing your preferences.
We brief you on the latest and most important developments, three times a day.
*Our Digital Subscription plans do not currently include the e-paper ,crossword, iPhone, iPad mobile applications and print. Our plans enhance your reading experience.
Here is the original post:
Can organoids, derived from stem cells, be used in disease treatments? - The Hindu
- Astellas and Adaptimmune team up in CAR-T development - European Biotechnology - January 15th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Rising Demand for Digitization in Organizations and Growth till 2027 - Galus Australis - January 15th, 2020
- Allele and Astellas Enter into an Expanded License for the Development of iPSC Lines - Yahoo Finance - January 15th, 2020
- Researchers have managed to bio-print a functional mini-liver in 90 days - FLWL News - January 15th, 2020
- CYTOVIA Therapeutics and the New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute enter into a partnership to develop iPSC derived CAR NK Therapeutics -... - January 10th, 2020
- Stem Cells Market Segmentation and Analysis Report, 2025 - Food & Beverage Herald - January 10th, 2020
- Stem Cell Therapy Market Robust Growth Counted to 2025 - Instanews247 - January 10th, 2020
- The Top Biotech Trends We'll Be Watching in 2020 - Singularity Hub - January 10th, 2020
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Structure, Industry Inspection, and Forecast 2025 - Filmi Baba - December 28th, 2019
- Top Technical Advances of 2019 - The Scientist - December 24th, 2019
- The next 3D-printing craze? It could be functioning 'mini-livers' - Inverse - December 24th, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market: Latest Innovations, Drivers and Industry Key Events 2016 2021 - Market Reports Observer - December 24th, 2019
- Stem Cell-Derived Cells Market Expected to Expand at a Steady CAGR through 2019 2029 - Downey Magazine - December 17th, 2019
- AgeX Therapeutics and Lineage Cell Therapeutics Announce Issuance of U.S. Patent for Method of Generating Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells - Yahoo... - December 11th, 2019
- Patent Granted To Lineage & AgeX - Anti Aging News - December 11th, 2019
- Charles River Announces Strategic Partnership with Bit Bio, Increasing Portfolio of Translational Drug Discovery Technologies - BioSpace - December 11th, 2019
- Fate Therapeutics Presents its First Off-the-shelf, iPSC-derived CAR T-Cell Cancer Immunotherapy Program at ASH Annual Meeting - GlobeNewswire - December 11th, 2019
- Fate Therapeutics Announces New Preclinical Data for FT596 Off-the-Shelf, iPSC-derived CAR NK Cell Cancer Immunotherapy - Benzinga - December 8th, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Assessed To Tell Apart High Growth By Implies In 2018 to 2026 - Wolf Mirror - December 5th, 2019
- Kyoto University Seeking To Use Stem Cells On Knee Treatment - Anti Aging News - December 5th, 2019
- Story of a 15-year old scientist: How it all began - EuroScientist - December 5th, 2019
- Stemonix, Atomwise Team Up on Drug Discovery With MicroOrgans and AI - Xconomy - December 5th, 2019
- Channel in Nerve Cell May be Key in Unlocking Parkinson Disease Therapy - Pharmacy Times - December 3rd, 2019
- First-in-kind Human 3-dimensional Models of Parkinson's Disease and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Launching to the International Space Station -... - December 3rd, 2019
- Stem Cells Market 2019 Global Growth Analysis and Forecast Report by 2025 - Markets Gazette 24 - November 26th, 2019
- UK animal experiment statistics indicate reluctance to embrace modern tools to advance British labs into the 21st century - Labmate Online - November 10th, 2019
- Human heart cells change during spaceflight, say scientists in study that could have far-reaching effects on c - MEAWW - November 7th, 2019
- Here's Why Fate Therapeutics Dropped as Much as 19.9% Today - Motley Fool - November 7th, 2019
- Space travel may change the human heart - Inverse - November 7th, 2019
- Allogene Therapeutics and Notch Therapeutics Announce Collaboration to Research and Develop Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC)-Derived Allogeneic... - November 5th, 2019
- Goldfinch Bio to Present Oral and Poster Presentations at the American Society of Nephrology Kidney Week 2019 Annual Meeting - BioSpace - November 5th, 2019
- MD Anderson and Takeda Team Up on Next-Generation Immuno-Oncology Therapeutics - BioSpace - November 5th, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Market is expected to witness a strong CAGR of 7.0% from 2018 to 2026 - Zebvo - November 2nd, 2019
- University team to seek approval for iPS-based heart treatment trial - The Japan Times - October 26th, 2019
- Global Gemcitabine Hydrochloride Market: Segmented By Application And Geography Trends, Growth And Forecasts To 2024 - Health News Office - October 26th, 2019
- Global consortium formed to combat unproven cell banking services - Drug Target Review - October 22nd, 2019
- Bloomberg Philanthropies, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute Announce an... - October 22nd, 2019
- ISCT forms cell and gene therapy sector-wide coalition to combat the rise of unproven commercial cell banking services - PharmiWeb.com - October 21st, 2019
- Mutations Linked to Huntington's Increase Cells' Resistance to Manganese, Study Finds - Huntington's Disease News - October 15th, 2019
- Stem Cells Market : Insights Into the Competitive Scenario of the Market - Online News Guru - October 11th, 2019
- 'Rewind Therapeutics' and Remyelination - SciTech Europa - October 11th, 2019
- Cell Expansion Market is expected to rise at a remarkable CAGR during the Forecast Period 2016 2024 - Space Market Research - October 9th, 2019
- Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market 2019 Innovative Trends and Insights Research upto 2024 - News Adopt - October 5th, 2019
- New Rett Therapies May Stem From X-chromosome Reactivation Findings - Rett Syndrome News - October 5th, 2019
- Stemming the Tide of Alzheimer's - UCI News - October 5th, 2019
- Skin-Derived Heart Cells Help Uncover the Genetic Foundations of Cardiac Function - Technology Networks - October 5th, 2019
- IGIB finds a protein with better precision in gene-editing - The Hindu - October 5th, 2019
- Novel Cell Sorting and Separation Market: Focus on Acoustophoresis, Buoyancy-activated, Dielectrophoresis, Magnetophoretics, Microfluidics,... - October 5th, 2019
- Fabry Heart Cells Grown in Lab Dish Give Hints to Cardiac Complications - Fabry Disease News - September 27th, 2019
- Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market 2019 Analysis & Forecast Report 2024 - Analytics News - September 24th, 2019
- Gene regulators work together for oversized impact on schizophrenia risk - National Institutes of Health - September 24th, 2019
- Blood Pressure and Prostate Treatment May Prevent or Slow Parkinson's, Early Study Suggests - Parkinson's News Today - September 24th, 2019
- New Gene Editing Technique Shown to Correct COL7A1 Gene in RDEB Cells - Epidermolysis Bullosa News - September 24th, 2019
- Vaginitis Therapeutics Market Overview with Detailed Analysis, Competitive lands - News By ReportsGO - September 24th, 2019
- Efavirenz/Tenofovir/Emtricitabine Combination Drug Market Overview with Detailed - News by Intelligence Journal - September 24th, 2019
- Can Consciousness be Created? - University Observer Online - September 24th, 2019
- Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market 2019 Industry Growth with CAGR 12.7% in Forecast to 2024 - Indian Columnist - September 21st, 2019
- Adipose Tissue-derived Stem Cells Market Size Set for Rapid Growth and Trend by2018 2028 - My Health Reporter - September 21st, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Market Estimated to be Driven by Innovation and Industrialization - Analytics News - September 20th, 2019
- 2024 Projections: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market Report by Type, Application and Regional Outlook - TheSlapClap - September 20th, 2019
- Angelman Foundation Honors 4 for Their Research, Advocacy Efforts - Angelman Syndrome News - September 20th, 2019
- Dicerna And DCR-A1AT In Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency-Associated Liver Disease - Seeking Alpha - September 20th, 2019
- Fate Therapeutics raises $173 million in offering - The San Diego Union-Tribune - September 19th, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market is expected to reach US$ 2299.5 Mn by the end of the forecast period in 2026 - Zebvo - September 19th, 2019
- induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) market reached $2.1 billion in 2016 The market should reach $3.6 billion in 2021 - ScoopJunction - September 19th, 2019
- Stem Cell-Derived Cells Market to Record an Exponential CAGR by 2025 - NewsVarsity - September 19th, 2019
- Common Prostate Drug May Slow Progression of Parkinson, Researchers Say - AJMC.com Managed Markets Network - September 19th, 2019
- Automated Large-Scale Production of Retinal Organoids - Advanced Science News - September 19th, 2019
- How a Centuries-Old Sculpting Method Is Helping 3D Print Organs With Blood Vessels - Singularity Hub - September 19th, 2019
- Study indicates early infusion of mononuclear cells could aid in recovery from stroke - Yahoo Finance - September 19th, 2019
- BIOLIFE4D Successfully 3D Bioprints a Miniature Human HeartOne Step Closer to Bioprinting Transplantable Organs - BioSpace - September 19th, 2019
- Scientists recognize genes as master regulators in schizophrenia - Tech Explorist - September 19th, 2019
- Japanese lab to collaborate with Christian Dior in iPS cell research - Japan Today - September 19th, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Market Research Report 2019 From TBRC has Been Updated - Market Research Gazette - September 19th, 2019
- What are Induced Pluripotent Stem (IPS) Cells? - Stem Cell ... - June 5th, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell - ScienceDirect - June 5th, 2019
- Stem Cell Glossary A Closer Look at Stem Cells - June 2nd, 2019
- Stemming retinal regeneration with pluripotent stem cells ... - May 27th, 2019
- Current Strategies and Challenges for Purification of ... - May 27th, 2019
- IPSCjun19 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: differentiation ... - May 24th, 2019