Category Archives: Somatic Stem Cells

Researchers ID Protein-Protein Interaction That Promotes Cancer Development – BioSpace

A group of researchers at Purdue University, led by Humaira Gowher, an associate professor in the Department of Biochemistry, identified an epigenetic process that controls the behavior of stem cell enhancers. In other words, Gowher and her team discovered that the OCT4 protein blocks a sequence of events that occurs when stem cells transition to any cells that arent reproductive cells, otherwise called somatic cells.

What does that mean?

If the cellular mechanisms that control the transition from stem cells to somatic cells don't stop correctly, cells can become cancerous. Gowhers research points to a fundamental mechanism behind why some cells become cancerous.

The research was published in the journal Cell Reports.

If you differentiate normal stem cells, they should silence their pluripotency gene enhancers, but these cells are not doing that, Gowher said. Theyre leaving the enhancer program partially open. Weve uncovered the issue that shelves these cells in some kind of intermediate, rather than in terminally differentiated, state.

In earlier research, Gowhers team found that when normal embryonic stem cells differentiate, they control their stemness genes by silencing certain control elements called enhancers. They do this via DNA methylation, which is a form of epigenetic silencing. A methyl group is a carbon atom with three hydrogen atoms attached to it, and when it is added to certain areas of the genome, acts as a switch, turning genes on or off under certain conditions.

In addition to the DNA methylation, Gowher found that an enzyme called Lsd1 aids in the DNA methylation. In some cancers, the stemness genes are partially repressed, which causes only partial differentiation. One possible way to think of this might be popcorn. If the unpopped popcorn is the stem cell and a fully popped popcorn is the normal somatic cell, the partially popped popcorn is the result of this repression and partial differentiation.

If you differentiate normal stem cells, they should silence their pluripotency gene enhancers, but these cells are not doing that, Gowher said. Theyre leaving the enhancer program partially open. Weve uncovered the issue that shelves these cells in some kind of intermediate, rather than in terminally differentiated, state.

When the enhancers are primed, they may potentially reactivate, which leads to more cell multiplication. This mechanism is also related to why cancer stem cells become resistant to differentiation therapy. Differentiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment where malignant cells are treated with drugs that cause them to differentiate into more mature types. Its because malignant cancer cells usually take on a less specialized, stem cell-like dedifferentiated form.

Another way of looking at it, is that that the fully popped popcorn is susceptible to certain types of cancer drugs, while the partially popped popcorn is less so.

What people have seen in some cancers is that enhancers exist in a primed state, Gowher said. It can potentially help the cancer stem cells survive and propagate. Its a pro-survival mechanism.

The activity of Lsd1 is inhibited by stem cell transcription factor OCT4 in these cells.

Because of this aberrant presence of OCT4, cells arent completely differentiating, Gowher said. If you could inhibit the OCT4-Lsd1 interaction, or target degradation of OCT4, that should allow the cells to differentiate. That could be a target for a cancer therapy.

As their research continues, Gowher will try to determine the interface of Lsd1-OCT4 interaction as well as identify other transcription factors that might inhibit Lsd1 activity.

When embryonic stem cells (ESC) differentiate, pluripotency gene (PpG)-specific enhancers are silenced by way of DNA methylation. The authors note that studies by the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) show that one out of three cancers express PpGs. This suggests they play a role in dysregulated cell proliferation during the formation of tumors, i.e., tumorigenesis. There are other factors as well, but it appears that in order to continue to divide and grow, many cancer cells continue to express PpGs, which led to the development of terminal differentiation therapy.

They wrote, To understand the mechanism by which cancer cells retain PpG expression, we investigated the mechanism of enhancer-mediated regulation of PpG expression in ECCs. Our data showed that, in differentiating F9 ECCs, the PpGs are only partially repressed.

This was consistent with deacetylation of H3K27, the 27th amino acid in Histone H3, a type of protein in the DNA molecule. But it also showed that there was an absence of Lsd1-mediated H3K4me1 demethylation at PpGe.

Which is a fairly complicated and detailed way of saying that they identified a mechanism that causes stem cells to head toward becoming regular somatic cells, but get stuck in an in-between state that can become cancer. And by learning more about this mechanism and targeting it, they may be able to halt cancer proliferation in its tracks.

Read the original here:
Researchers ID Protein-Protein Interaction That Promotes Cancer Development - BioSpace

Dental Regenerative Market Size, Share 2020 Regional Trend, Future Growth, Leading Players Updates, Industry Demand, Current and Future Plans by…

Global Dental Regenerative Market 2020 Industry Research report provides a comprehensive exploration of vital market dynamics and their recent trends, along with relevant market segments. The Dental Regenerative report also covers several factors influencing the growth of the Dental Regenerative market, Also, its impact on the individual segments is evaluated in this research. The report highlights the regional market, the leading market players, and several market. In addition, the research evaluated key market aspects, comprising capacity utilization rate, revenue, price, capacity, growth rate, gross, production, consumption, supply, export, market share, cost, import, gross margin, demand, and much more. The study also presents the segmentation of the worldwide Dental Regenerative market on the basis of end-users, applications, geography, and technology.

Request a sample copy of the report https://www.marketreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-sample/14366749

The emotional connection of natural teeth and the high nature of natural teeth have drawn attention to the development of bioengineered teeth (tooth regeneration).Tooth regeneration is a stem cell-based regenerative medicine procedure that, in the fields of tissue engineering and stem cell biology, replaces damaged or lost teeth by redrawing from autologous stem cells.As a source of new bioengineered teeth, somatic stem cells are collected and reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells that can be placed directly in the dental plate or in a reabsorbable biopolymer in the shape of a new tooth.Market Analysis and Insights: Global Dental Regenerative MarketIn 2019, the global Dental Regenerative market size was US$ xx million and it is expected to reach US$ xx million by the end of 2026, with a CAGR of xx% during 2021-2026.Global Dental Regenerative Scope and Market SizeDental Regenerative market is segmented by Type, and by Application. Players, stakeholders, and other participants in the global Dental Regenerative market will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource. The segmental analysis focuses on revenue and forecast by Type and by Application in terms of revenue and forecast for the period 2015-2026.

Global Dental Regenerative market 2019 research provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Global Dental Regenerative market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed. This report also states import/export consumption, supply and demand Figures, cost, price, revenue and gross margins.

Enquire before purchasing this report https://www.marketreportsworld.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/14366749

Global Dental Regenerative market competition by top manufacturers, with production, price, revenue (value) and market share for each manufacturer; the TOP PLAYERS including;

The analysis provides an exhaustive investigation of the global Dental Regenerative market together with the future projections to assess the investment feasibility. Furthermore, the report includes both quantitative and qualitative analyses of the Dental Regenerative market throughout the forecast period. The report also comprehends business opportunities and scope for expansion. Besides this, it provides insights into market threats or barriers and the impact of regulatory framework to give an executive-level blueprint the Dental Regenerative market. This is done with an aim of helping companies in strategizing their decisions in a better way and finally attain their business goals.

With tables and figures helping analyze worldwide Global Dental Regenerative market, this research provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

Purchase this report (Price 3900 USD for a single-user license) https://www.marketreportsworld.com/purchase/14366749

By the product type, the market is primarily split into

By the end users/application, this report covers the following segments

The study objectives of this report are:

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Dental Regenerative are as follows:

Key Stakeholders

Major Points from Table of Contents:

1 Report Overview

1.1 Study Scope

1.2 Key Market Segments

1.3 Players Covered

1.4 Market Analysis by Type

1.4.1 Global Dental Regenerative Market Size Growth Rate by Type (2014-2026)

1.4.2 Major-Type

1.4.3 Independent-Type

1.4.4 Administrator-Type

1.5 Market by Application

1.5.1 Global Dental Regenerative Market Share by Application (2014-2026)

1.5.2 Commercial

1.5.3 Commonweal

1.5.4 Other

1.6 Study Objectives

1.7 Years Considered

2 Global Growth Trends

2.1 Dental Regenerative Market Size

2.2 Dental Regenerative Growth Trends by Regions

2.2.1 Dental Regenerative Market Size by Regions (2014-2026)

2.2.2 Dental Regenerative Market Share by Regions (2014-2019)

2.3 Industry Trends

2.3.1 Market Top Trends

2.3.2 Market Drivers

2.3.3 Market Opportunities

3 Market Share by Key Players

3.1 Dental Regenerative Market Size by Manufacturers

3.1.1 Global Dental Regenerative Revenue by Manufacturers (2014-2019)

3.1.2 Global Dental Regenerative Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2014-2019)

3.1.3 Global Dental Regenerative Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI)

3.2 Dental Regenerative Key Players Head office and Area Served

3.3 Key Players Dental Regenerative Product/Solution/Service

3.4 Date of Enter into Dental Regenerative Market

3.5 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

4 Breakdown Data by Type and Application

4.1 Global Dental Regenerative Market Size by Type (2014-2019)

4.2 Global Dental Regenerative Market Size by Application (2014-2019)

(5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) United States, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, India, Central & South America

Dental Regenerative Market Size (2014-2019)

Key Players

Dental Regenerative Market Size by Type

Dental Regenerative Market Size by Application

12 International Players Profiles

Company Details

Company Description and Business Overview

Dental Regenerative Introduction

Revenue in Dental Regenerative Business (2014-2019)

Recent Development

13 Market Forecast 2019-2026

13.1 Market Size Forecast by Regions

13.2 United States

13.3 Europe

13.4 China

13.5 Japan

13.6 Southeast Asia

13.7 India

13.8 Central & South America

13.9 Market Size Forecast by Product (2019-2026)

13.10 Market Size Forecast by Application (2019-2026)

14 Analysts Viewpoints/Conclusions

15 Appendix

15.1 Research Methodology

15.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach

15.1.1.1 Research Programs/Design

15.1.1.2 Market Size Estimation

12.1.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation

15.1.2 Data Source

15.1.2.1 Secondary Sources

15.1.2.2 Primary Sources

15.2 Disclaimer

15.3 Author Details

Browse complete table of contents at https://www.marketreportsworld.com/TOC/14366749

About Us:

Market Reports Worldis the Credible Source for Gaining the Market Reports that will Provide you with the Lead Your Business Needs. Market is changing rapidly with the ongoing expansion of the industry. Advancement in the technology has provided todays businesses with multifaceted advantages resulting in daily economic shifts. Thus, it is very important for a company to comprehend the patterns of the market movements in order to strategize better. An efficient strategy offers the companies with a head start in planning and an edge over the competitors.

CONTACT US

Name: Ajay More

Read more:
Dental Regenerative Market Size, Share 2020 Regional Trend, Future Growth, Leading Players Updates, Industry Demand, Current and Future Plans by...

Global Gene Therapy Market to Cross Around USD 6892 Million By 2027 – Global Newspaper 24

Gene Therapy Market

Facts and Factors Market Researchhas published a new report titled Gene Therapy Market By Type (Germ Line Gene Therapy and Somatic Gene Therapy), By Vector Type (Viral Vectors, Non-Viral Vectors, and Human Artificial Chromosome), and By Therapy Area (Cancer, Neurological Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Genetic Disorders, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Others): Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, and Forecast, 2018 2027. According to the report, the globalgene therapy marketwas valued at approximately USD 919 million in 2018 and is expected to reach a value of around USD 6,892 million by 2027, at a CAGR of around 25.1% between 2019 and 2027.

Gene therapy is the kind of experimental method that makes use of genes for treating or preventing disease by inserting foreign genetic material like DNA or RNA into the persons cells. Scientists are studying gene therapy for treating various kinds of immuno-deficiencies, Parkinsons disease, HIV, and cancer by using myriad approaches. Today, many of the approaches to gene therapy are undergoing most intensive & rigorously testing. This includes replacing the mutated gene causing disease with the healthy gene copy. Another approach includes knocking out or inactivating a mutated gene operating improperly. Yet another approach includes a new gene into the body to combat the disease.

Request Free Sample Copy of Research Report @https://www.fnfresearch.com/sample/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

New product approval & commercialization to drive the market trends

Between the periods from 2012 to 2018, nearly five single-use gene treatments received approval from the U.S. FDA for treating a rare form of genetic disorders. Moreover, gene treatments that have received approval are being tested by pharmaceutical firms in the market. Apart from this, current approvals of gene therapy products across the U.S., as well as European countries for treating a plethora of life-threatening diseases, are anticipated to steer the growth of gene therapy industry over the forecast timeline. Moreover, gene therapy can also be used for treating neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinal muscular atrophy.

Furthermore, many of the reputed pharma firms like Bristol-Myers Squibb, BioMarin, and Pfizer are investing massively into the research activities pertaining to gene therapy. Apart from this, a rise in the occurrence of cancer is prompting the demand to treat the disease. Gene therapy is one of the key treatment kinds that will propel the market growth over the forecast period. However, inadequate reimbursement policies pertaining to the one-time gene treatments will downgrade market expansion.

In addition to this, conducting of randomized controlled trials can pose a threat to the expansion of the gene therapy industry as a result of the gene therapy features & projected patient population. Nevertheless, the ability of the gene therapy to eliminate the number of ailments with faulty or missing genes like hemophilia A will promote the market growth over the forecast period and thereby nullify the negative impact of hindrances on the business growth.

Inquire more about this report before purchase @https://www.fnfresearch.com/inquiry/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

Somatic gene therapy to dominate the type segment

The growth of the segment over the forecast timeline is credited to the ability to treat the targeted cells in the patient population. The treatment is not passed to future generations and is restricted to only the patient who receives the somatic gene therapy. Moreover, it is used for treating a huge number of disorders like cystic fibrosis, cancer, and muscular dystrophy.

Cancer to lead the therapy area segment over the forecast period

The segmental expansion is attributed to a large number of pipeline drugs registered over the past few years along with increasing occurrence of cancer as a result of genetic changes.

North America to dominate the overall regional market share during the forecast timespan

North American market, which accrued revenue of USD 380 million in 2018, is set to contribute majorly towards the overall market revenue by 2027. The regional market surge is credited to robust healthcare amenities, high per capita healthcare spending, and improvement in the reimbursement policies.

The key players included in this market are Advanced Cell & Gene Therapy, Audentes Therapeutics, Benitec Biopharma, Biogen, Blubird Bio, Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, CHIESI Farmaceutici SPA, Eurofins Scientific, Geneta Science, Genzyme Corporation, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline PLC, Human Stem Cells institute, Novartis AG, Orchard Therapeutics, Pfizer Inc., Sangamo therapeutics, Spark therapeutics, and Voyager Therapeutics.

Request customized copy of report @https://www.fnfresearch.com/customization/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

This report segments the gene therapy market as follows:

GlobalGene TherapyMarket:By TypeSegment Analysis

GlobalGene TherapyMarket: ByVector TypeSegment Analysis

GlobalGene TherapyMarket: ByTherapy AreaSegment Analysis

Global Gene TherapyMarket: Regional Segment Analysis

About Us:

Facts & Factors is a leading market research organization offering industry expertise and scrupulous consulting services to clients for their business development. The reports and services offered by Facts and Factors are used by prestigious academic institutions, start-ups, and companies globally to measure and understand the changing international and regional business backgrounds. Our clients/customers conviction on our solutions and services has pushed us in delivering always the best. Our advanced research solutions have helped them in appropriate decision-making and guidance for strategies to expand their business.

Contact Us:

Facts & Factors

Global Headquarters

Level 8, International Finance Center, Tower 2,8 Century Avenue, Shanghai,Postal 200120, ChinaTel: +86 21 80360450

Email:sales@fnfresearch.com

Web:https://www.fnfresearch.com

Sorry! The Author has not filled his profile.

Go here to read the rest:
Global Gene Therapy Market to Cross Around USD 6892 Million By 2027 - Global Newspaper 24

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Predicted to Witness Surge in the Near Future2018 2028 – TechNews.mobi

TMRR, in its recent market report, suggests that the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market report is set to exceed US$ xx Mn/Bn by 2029. The report finds that the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market registered ~US$ xx Mn/Bn in 2018 and is spectated to grow at a healthy CAGR over the foreseeable period. This Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market study considers 2018 as the base year, 2019 as the estimated year, and 2019 2029 as the forecast timeframe.

The Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market research focuses on the market structure and various factors (positive and negative) affecting the growth of the market. The study encloses a precise evaluation of the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market, including growth rate, current scenario, and volume inflation prospects, on the basis of DROT and Porters Five Forces analyses. In addition, the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market study provides reliable and authentic projections regarding the technical jargon.

Important regions covered in the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market research include Region 1 (Country 1, country 2), Region 2 (Country 1, country 2), Region 3 (Country 1, country 2) and Region 4 (Country 1, country 2).

Request For Discount On This Report @ https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=D&rep_id=6245&source=atm

The Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market study answers critical questions including:

The content of the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market report includes the following insights:

Request Sample Report @ https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=B&rep_id=6245&source=atm

On the basis of component, the global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market report covers the following segments:

Notable Development

Over the past few years, fast emerging markets in the global induced pluripotent stem cells are seeing the advent of patents that unveil new techniques for reprogramming of adult cells to reach embryonic stage. Particularly, the idea that these pluripotent stem cells can be made to form any cells in the body has galvanized companies to test their potential in human cell lines. Also, a few biotech companies have intensified their research efforts to improve the safety of and reduce the risk of genetic aberrations in their approved human cell lines. Recently, this has seen the form of collaborative efforts among them.

Lineage Cell Therapeutics and AgeX Therapeutics have in December 2019 announced that they have applied for a patent for a new method for generating iPSCs. These are based on NIH-approved human cell lines, and have been undergoing clinical-stage programs in the treatment of dry macular degeneration and spinal cord injuries. The companies claim to include multiple techniques for reprogramming of animal somatic cells.

Such initiatives by biotech companies are expected to impart a solid push to the evolution of the induced pluripotent stem cells.

North America is one of the regions attracting colossal research funding and industry investments in induced pluripotent stem cells technologies. Continuous efforts of players to generate immune-matched supply of pluripotent cells to be used in disease modelling has been a key accelerator for growth. Meanwhile, Asia Pacific has also been showing a promising potential in the expansion of the prospects of the market. The rising number of programs for expanding stem cell-based therapy is opening new avenues in the market.

All the players running in the global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market are elaborated thoroughly in the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market report on the basis of R&D developments, distribution channels, industrial penetration, manufacturing processes, and revenue. In addition, the report examines, legal policies, and comparative analysis between the leading and emerging Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market players.

Customize This Report @ https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=CR&rep_id=6245&source=atm

Why choose TMRR?

Tags: Induced Pluripotent SteInduced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Definitions and OverviewInduced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market DynamicsInduced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Segmentation and Scope

Continued here:
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Predicted to Witness Surge in the Near Future2018 2028 - TechNews.mobi

Global Gene Therapy Market Worth Reach USD 6892 Million By 2027 – TheInfobiz

Facts and Factors Market Researchhas published a new report titled Gene Therapy Market By Type (Germ Line Gene Therapy and Somatic Gene Therapy), By Vector Type (Viral Vectors, Non-Viral Vectors, and Human Artificial Chromosome), and By Therapy Area (Cancer, Neurological Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Genetic Disorders, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Others): Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, and Forecast, 2018 2027.

According to the report, the globalgene therapy market was valued at approximately USD 919 million in 2018 and is expected to reach a value of around USD 6,892 million by 2027, at a CAGR of around 25.1% between 2019 and 2027.

Gene therapy is the kind of experimental method that makes use of genes for treating or preventing disease by inserting foreign genetic material like DNA or RNA into the persons cells. Scientists are studying gene therapy for treating various kinds of immuno-deficiencies, Parkinsons disease, HIV, and cancer by using myriad approaches. Today, many of the approaches to gene therapy are undergoing most intensive & rigorously testing. This includes replacing the mutated gene causing disease with the healthy gene copy. Another approach includes knocking out or inactivating a mutated gene operating improperly. Yet another approach includes a new gene into the body to combat the disease.

Request for Free Sample Report @ https://www.fnfresearch.com/sample/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

(The sample of this report is readily available on request).

This Free report sample includes:

New product approval & commercialization to drive the market trends

Between the periods from 2012 to 2018, nearly five single-use gene treatments received approval from the U.S. FDA for treating a rare form of genetic disorders. Moreover, gene treatments that have received approval are being tested by pharmaceutical firms in the market. Apart from this, current approvals of gene therapy products across the U.S., as well as European countries for treating a plethora of life-threatening diseases, are anticipated to steer the growth of gene therapy industry over the forecast timeline. Moreover, gene therapy can also be used for treating neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinal muscular atrophy.

Furthermore, many of the reputed pharma firms like Bristol-Myers Squibb, BioMarin, and Pfizer are investing massively into the research activities pertaining to gene therapy. Apart from this, a rise in the occurrence of cancer is prompting the demand to treat the disease. Gene therapy is one of the key treatment kinds that will propel the market growth over the forecast period. However, inadequate reimbursement policies pertaining to the one-time gene treatments will downgrade market expansion.

Inquire more about this report before purchase @ https://www.fnfresearch.com/inquiry/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene(You may enquire a report quote OR available discount offers to our sales team before purchase).

In addition to this, conducting of randomized controlled trials can pose a threat to the expansion of the gene therapy industry as a result of the gene therapy features & projected patient population. Nevertheless, the ability of the gene therapy to eliminate the number of ailments with faulty or missing genes like hemophilia A will promote the market growth over the forecast period and thereby nullify the negative impact of hindrances on the business growth.

Somatic gene therapy to dominate the type segment

The growth of the segment over the forecast timeline is credited to the ability to treat the targeted cells in the patient population. The treatment is not passed to future generations and is restricted to only the patient who receives the somatic gene therapy. Moreover, it is used for treating a huge number of disorders like cystic fibrosis, cancer, and muscular dystrophy.

Request Customized Copy of Report @ https://www.fnfresearch.com/customization/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene(We customize your report according to your research need. Ask our sales team for report customization).

Cancer to lead the therapy area segment over the forecast period

The segmental expansion is attributed to a large number of pipeline drugs registered over the past few years along with increasing occurrence of cancer as a result of genetic changes.

North America to dominate the overall regional market share during the forecast timespan

North American market, which accrued revenue of USD 380 million in 2018, is set to contribute majorly towards the overall market revenue by 2027. The regional market surge is credited to robust healthcare amenities, high per capita healthcare spending, and improvement in the reimbursement policies.

The key players included in this market are Advanced Cell & Gene Therapy, Audentes Therapeutics, Benitec Biopharma, Biogen, Blubird Bio, Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, CHIESI Farmaceutici SPA, Eurofins Scientific, Geneta Science, Genzyme Corporation, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline PLC, Human Stem Cells institute, Novartis AG, Orchard Therapeutics, Pfizer Inc., Sangamo therapeutics, Spark therapeutics, and Voyager Therapeutics.

Browse the fullGene Therapy Market By Type (Germ Line Gene Therapy and Somatic Gene Therapy), By Vector Type (Viral Vectors, Non-Viral Vectors, and Human Artificial Chromosome), and By Therapy Area (Cancer, Neurological Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Genetic Disorders, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Others): Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, and Forecast, 2018 2027Report athttps://www.fnfresearch.com/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

This report segments the gene therapy market as follows:

Global Gene Therapy Market: By Type Segment Analysis

Global Gene Therapy Market: By Vector Type Segment Analysis

Global Gene Therapy Market: By Therapy Area Segment Analysis

Global Gene Therapy Market: Regional Segment Analysis

About Us:

Facts & Factors is a leading market research organization offering industry expertise and scrupulous consulting services to clients for their business development. The reports and services offered by Facts and Factors are used by prestigious academic institutions, start-ups, and companies globally to measure and understand the changing international and regional business backgrounds. Our clients/customers conviction on our solutions and services has pushed us in delivering always the best. Our advanced research solutions have helped them in appropriate decision-making and guidance for strategies to expand their business.

Contact Us:

Facts & Factors

Global Headquarters

Level 8, International Finance Center, Tower 2,8 Century Avenue, Shanghai,Postal 200120, ChinaTel: +86 21 80360450

Email:sales@fnfresearch.com

Web:https://www.fnfresearch.com

Read the original here:
Global Gene Therapy Market Worth Reach USD 6892 Million By 2027 - TheInfobiz

New research shows what happens to your lung cells once you quit smoking – Daily Gaming Worlld

Advertisement

A Cigarette (Representative Picture) Lindsay Fox at EcigaretteReviewed.com

Text Size:ON-A +

We know that smoking cessation is an excellent way to lower your risk of lung cancer. So far, the experts were not sure why this was the case. Our latest research has shown that in people who quit smoking, the body actually fills the airways with normal, non-cancerous cells that help protect the lungs and reduce their risk of cancer.

Advertisement

Cancer develops when a single villain cell takes on genetic changes called mutations that instruct that cell to ignore all normal growth restrictions, causing it to rapidly multiply out of control. Throughout our lives, all of our cells accept mutations at a constant rate about 20-50 mutations per cell and year. Fortunately, the vast majority of these mutations are completely harmless and do not affect our cells in any measurable way.

But occasionally a mutation in the wrong gene ends up in the wrong cell, driving the cell to cancer. We call these genetic changes driver mutations. For the cell to become a full-blown cancer cell, five to ten or more of these driver mutations are likely to be needed.

Thanks to advances in DNA sequencing technology, we are now able to examine all 3 billion DNA bases that make up the genetic blueprint of a cell (called the genome). By sequencing lung cancer cell DNA in smokers and non-smokers, we know that smoking increases the number of mutations.

The binding of tobacco carcinogens to DNA is affected by their chemical properties, which means that certain types of mutations occur more often than others. For tobacco, this leads to a clear signature of mutations that occur in the genome, which differs from other causes of DNA damage.

Our team was interested in the earliest stages of developing lung cancer. In particular, we try to understand what happens to normal cells when they are exposed to tobacco smoke.

To investigate this, we developed methods to isolate individual normal cells from small biopsies of a patients airways, and then grown these cells in an incubator to obtain enough DNA for sequencing. We then analyzed the genome of 632 cells from 16 study participants, including four non-smokers, six ex-smokers and three current smokers (all in middle age or older) and three children.

Among the never smokers, we found that the number of cell mutations increased with age. So when someone is 60 years old, every normal lung cell contains about 1,000 to 1,500 mutations. These mutations are caused by the normal wear and tear of life, the same type of mutation that we see in other organs in the body. Only about 5% of the cells of never-smokers were found to have driver mutations.

Also read: Early breast cancer treatment in India costs 10 years of average annual wages: WHO

With the current smokers, however, the picture was very different. We found that each lung cell had an average of 5,000 additional mutations that exceeded the expectations of a never-smoking age. It was even more striking that the variation from cell to cell also increased dramatically in smokers.

Some individual cells had 10,000-15,000 mutations ten times more mutations than we would have expected if the person had not smoked. These additional mutations had the signature that we would expect from the chemicals in tobacco smoke, which confirms that they can be traced directly to cigarettes.

In addition to an increase in the total number of mutations, there is also a significant increase in driver mutations. More than a quarter of the lung cells of all smokers currently examined had at least one drive mutation. Some even had two or three. Given that five to ten of these mutations can cause cancer, it is clear that many normal lung cells are likely to become cancerous in middle-aged or older smokers.

Our most exciting result was the people who quit smoking. We found that ex-smokers had two groups of cells. One group had the thousands of additional mutations seen in current smokers, but the other group was essentially normal. The normal cell group had the same number of mutations as we would expect in the cells from someone who had never smoked.

This nearly normal group of cells was four times larger in former smokers than in current smokers. This suggests that these cells increase to refill the airway lining after someone quits smoking. We have seen this expansion of nearly normal cells in former smokers who have smoked a pack of cigarettes daily for more than 40 years.

The reason why this finding is so exciting is that this almost normal group of cells protects against cancer. When we examine a former smokers lung cancer cell, it always comes from the badly damaged group of cells not from the almost normal group.

Now we know why our risk of cancer decreases so much because the body fills the airways with cells that are essentially normal. The next step will be to find out how this group of cells manages to avoid damage from cigarette smoke and how we can encourage them to recover even more.

One possible explanation which emerges from previous work on mouse models is that a group of stem cells is buried deep in the glands that produce the mucus secreted from the airways. This place would of course be better protected from tobacco smoke than the surface of the airways.

Our research is currently repeating that quitting smoking at any age not only slows the accumulation of further damage, but also wakes up cells that were not damaged by previous lifestyle choices.

Sam Janes, Professor of Respiratory Medicine, UCL and Peter Campbell, Head of Cancer, Aging and Somatic Mutation, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

This article was republished in The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Also read: One in 15 Indians will die from cancer, the WHO report says

ThePrint is now in the telegram. Subscribe to ThePrint on Telegram for the best reports and opinions on politics, governance and more.

Read the complete message

Advertisement

Link:
New research shows what happens to your lung cells once you quit smoking - Daily Gaming Worlld

Global Gene Therapy Market to Cross USD 6892 Million By 2027 – TheInfobiz

Facts and Factors Market Researchhas published a new report titled Gene Therapy Market By Type (Germ Line Gene Therapy and Somatic Gene Therapy), By Vector Type (Viral Vectors, Non-Viral Vectors, and Human Artificial Chromosome), and By Therapy Area (Cancer, Neurological Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Genetic Disorders, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Others): Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, and Forecast, 2018 2027.

According to the report, the globalgene therapy marketwas valued at approximately USD 919 million in 2018 and is expected to reach a value of around USD 6,892 million by 2027, at a CAGR of around 25.1% between 2019 and 2027.

Gene therapy is the kind of experimental method that makes use of genes for treating or preventing disease by inserting foreign genetic material like DNA or RNA into the persons cells. Scientists are studying gene therapy for treating various kinds of immuno-deficiencies, Parkinsons disease, HIV, and cancer by using myriad approaches. Today, many of the approaches to gene therapy are undergoing most intensive & rigorously testing. This includes replacing the mutated gene causing disease with the healthy gene copy. Another approach includes knocking out or inactivating a mutated gene operating improperly. Yet another approach includes a new gene into the body to combat the disease.

Request Free Sample Copy of Research Report @ https://www.fnfresearch.com/sample/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

(The sample of this report is readily available on request).

This Free report sample includes:

New product approval & commercialization to drive the market trends

Between the periods from 2012 to 2018, nearly five single-use gene treatments received approval from the U.S. FDA for treating a rare form of genetic disorders. Moreover, gene treatments that have received approval are being tested by pharmaceutical firms in the market. Apart from this, current approvals of gene therapy products across the U.S., as well as European countries for treating a plethora of life-threatening diseases, are anticipated to steer the growth of gene therapy industry over the forecast timeline. Moreover, gene therapy can also be used for treating neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinal muscular atrophy.

Furthermore, many of the reputed pharma firms like Bristol-Myers Squibb, BioMarin, and Pfizer are investing massively into the research activities pertaining to gene therapy. Apart from this, a rise in the occurrence of cancer is prompting the demand to treat the disease. Gene therapy is one of the key treatment kinds that will propel the market growth over the forecast period. However, inadequate reimbursement policies pertaining to the one-time gene treatments will downgrade market expansion.

In addition to this, conducting of randomized controlled trials can pose a threat to the expansion of the gene therapy industry as a result of the gene therapy features & projected patient population. Nevertheless, the ability of the gene therapy to eliminate the number of ailments with faulty or missing genes like hemophilia A will promote the market growth over the forecast period and thereby nullify the negative impact of hindrances on the business growth.

Inquire more about this report before purchase @ https://www.fnfresearch.com/inquiry/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

(You may enquire a report quote OR available discount offers to our sales team before purchase).

Somatic gene therapy to dominate the type segment

The growth of the segment over the forecast timeline is credited to the ability to treat the targeted cells in the patient population. The treatment is not passed to future generations and is restricted to only the patient who receives the somatic gene therapy. Moreover, it is used for treating a huge number of disorders like cystic fibrosis, cancer, and muscular dystrophy.

Cancer to lead the therapy area segment over the forecast period

The segmental expansion is attributed to a large number of pipeline drugs registered over the past few years along with increasing occurrence of cancer as a result of genetic changes.

Request Customized Copy of Report @ https://www.fnfresearch.com/customization/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

(We customize your report according to your research need. Ask our sales team for report customization).

North America to dominate the overall regional market share during the forecast timespan

North American market, which accrued revenue of USD 380 million in 2018, is set to contribute majorly towards the overall market revenue by 2027. The regional market surge is credited to robust healthcare amenities, high per capita healthcare spending, and improvement in the reimbursement policies.

The key players included in this market are Advanced Cell & Gene Therapy, Audentes Therapeutics, Benitec Biopharma, Biogen, Blubird Bio, Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, CHIESI Farmaceutici SPA, Eurofins Scientific, Geneta Science, Genzyme Corporation, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline PLC, Human Stem Cells institute, Novartis AG, Orchard Therapeutics, Pfizer Inc., Sangamo therapeutics, Spark therapeutics, and Voyager Therapeutics.

Browse detail report with in-depth TOC @ https://www.fnfresearch.com/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

This report segments the gene therapy market as follows:

GlobalGene TherapyMarket:By TypeSegment Analysis

GlobalGene TherapyMarket: ByVector TypeSegment Analysis

GlobalGene TherapyMarket: ByTherapy AreaSegment Analysis

Global Gene TherapyMarket: Regional Segment Analysis

About Us:

Facts & Factors is a leading market research organization offering industry expertise and scrupulous consulting services to clients for their business development. The reports and services offered by Facts and Factors are used by prestigious academic institutions, start-ups, and companies globally to measure and understand the changing international and regional business backgrounds. Our clients/customers conviction on our solutions and services has pushed us in delivering always the best. Our advanced research solutions have helped them in appropriate decision-making and guidance for strategies to expand their business.

Contact Us:

Facts & Factors

Global Headquarters

Level 8, International Finance Center, Tower 2,8 Century Avenue, Shanghai,Postal 200120, ChinaTel: +86 21 80360450

Email:sales@fnfresearch.com

Web:https://www.fnfresearch.com

See the original post here:
Global Gene Therapy Market to Cross USD 6892 Million By 2027 - TheInfobiz

Scientists finally find link between stress and grey hair – nation.co.ke

Study shows stress accelerates hair greyingBy NASIBO KABALE More by this Author21hoursago

There is an infamous photo of former US president Barack Obama showing his appearance before and after he took office.

From the photo, it is clear that almost all of Obamas hair had greyed and he looked a lot older than his actual age. It was assumed that his line of work had a lot to do with his greying hair, something scientist have now confirmed.

Although the natural ageing process and genes play a huge role in the greying of hair, scientists have confirmed that stress is, indeed, a factor as well. A new study published in the journal Nature, associated stress with accelerated hair greying.

Researchers found that the norepinephrine from sympathetic nerves caused the stem cells to activate excessively, sending them into overload and depleting the colour reservoir.

According to the Harvard teams research paper, the specific type of stress associated with the brains fight-or-flight response is the culprit behind greying.

It revealed that when an individual had stress it caused a sympathetic nerve response that activated the stem cells responsible for colouring hair. Our study demonstrates that neuronal activity that is induced by acute stress can drive a rapid and permanent loss of somatic stem cells, and illustrates an example in which the maintenance of somatic stem cells is directly influenced by the overall physiological state of the organism, the team said.

The team made their discovery through a series of experiments that measured the effect of stress on the hair colour of mice. They exposed the animals to three different stressors such as pain, restraint and a model of psychological stress. The animals were stressed over several days by being restrained for four hours a day, Monday to Friday, or through combinations of damp bedding, rapid changes to lighting and tilting their cages.

The study gives hope now that scientists know the protein involved in causing damage to stem cells from stress and they can find out how to possibly delay the greying of hair. For example, the found out that when this protein cyclin-dependent kinase was suppressed, the treatment also prevented a change in the colour of mice fur.

Continue reading here:
Scientists finally find link between stress and grey hair - nation.co.ke

Global Gene Therapy Market is Growing to Reach 6892 Million By 2027 – Market Research News 24

Facts and Factors Market Researchhas published a new report titled Gene Therapy Market By Type (Germ Line Gene Therapy and Somatic Gene Therapy), By Vector Type (Viral Vectors, Non-Viral Vectors, and Human Artificial Chromosome), and By Therapy Area (Cancer, Neurological Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Genetic Disorders, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Others): Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, and Forecast, 2018 2027.

According to the report, the globalgene therapy market was valued at approximately USD 919 million in 2018 and is expected to reach a value of around USD 6,892 million by 2027, at a CAGR of around 25.1% between 2019 and 2027.

Gene therapy is the kind of experimental method that makes use of genes for treating or preventing disease by inserting foreign genetic material like DNA or RNA into the persons cells. Scientists are studying gene therapy for treating various kinds of immuno-deficiencies, Parkinsons disease, HIV, and cancer by using myriad approaches. Today, many of the approaches to gene therapy are undergoing most intensive & rigorously testing. This includes replacing the mutated gene causing disease with the healthy gene copy. Another approach includes knocking out or inactivating a mutated gene operating improperly. Yet another approach includes a new gene into the body to combat the disease.

Request Free Sample Copy of Research Report @ https://www.fnfresearch.com/sample/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

(The sample of this report is readily available on request. The free sample report on the Wheelchair Accessible Vehicle Converters market consists of data regarding the competitive terrain as well as analysis of the competitive scope of this industry.)

New product approval & commercialization to drive the market trends

Between the periods from 2012 to 2018, nearly five single-use gene treatments received approval from the U.S. FDA for treating a rare form of genetic disorders. Moreover, gene treatments that have received approval are being tested by pharmaceutical firms in the market. Apart from this, current approvals of gene therapy products across the U.S., as well as European countries for treating a plethora of life-threatening diseases, are anticipated to steer the growth of gene therapy industry over the forecast timeline. Moreover, gene therapy can also be used for treating neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinal muscular atrophy.

Furthermore, many of the reputed pharma firms like Bristol-Myers Squibb, BioMarin, and Pfizer are investing massively into the research activities pertaining to gene therapy. Apart from this, a rise in the occurrence of cancer is prompting the demand to treat the disease. Gene therapy is one of the key treatment kinds that will propel the market growth over the forecast period. However, inadequate reimbursement policies pertaining to the one-time gene treatments will downgrade market expansion.

Inquire more about this report before purchase @ https://www.fnfresearch.com/inquiry/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

(You may enquire a report quote OR available discount offers to our sales team before purchase.)

In addition to this, conducting of randomized controlled trials can pose a threat to the expansion of the gene therapy industry as a result of the gene therapy features & projected patient population. Nevertheless, the ability of the gene therapy to eliminate the number of ailments with faulty or missing genes like hemophilia A will promote the market growth over the forecast period and thereby nullify the negative impact of hindrances on the business growth.

Somatic gene therapy to dominate the type segment

The growth of the segment over the forecast timeline is credited to the ability to treat the targeted cells in the patient population. The treatment is not passed to future generations and is restricted to only the patient who receives the somatic gene therapy. Moreover, it is used for treating a huge number of disorders like cystic fibrosis, cancer, and muscular dystrophy.

Cancer to lead the therapy area segment over the forecast period

The segmental expansion is attributed to a large number of pipeline drugs registered over the past few years along with increasing occurrence of cancer as a result of genetic changes.

North America to dominate the overall regional market share during the forecast timespan

North American market, which accrued revenue of USD 380 million in 2018, is set to contribute majorly towards the overall market revenue by 2027. The regional market surge is credited to robust healthcare amenities, high per capita healthcare spending, and improvement in the reimbursement policies.

Request customized copy of report @ https://www.fnfresearch.com/customization/gene-therapy-market-by-type-germ-line-gene

(We customize your report according to your research need. Ask our sales team for report customization)

The key players included in this market are Advanced Cell & Gene Therapy, Audentes Therapeutics, Benitec Biopharma, Biogen, Blubird Bio, Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, CHIESI Farmaceutici SPA, Eurofins Scientific, Geneta Science, Genzyme Corporation, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline PLC, Human Stem Cells institute, Novartis AG, Orchard Therapeutics, Pfizer Inc., Sangamo therapeutics, Spark therapeutics, and Voyager Therapeutics.

This report segments the gene therapy market as follows:

Global Gene Therapy Market: By Type Segment Analysis

Global Gene Therapy Market: By Vector Type Segment Analysis

Global Gene Therapy Market: By Therapy Area Segment Analysis

Global Gene Therapy Market: Regional Segment Analysis

About Us:

Facts & Factors is a leading market research organization offering industry expertise and scrupulous consulting services to clients for their business development. The reports and services offered by Facts and Factors are used by prestigious academic institutions, start-ups, and companies globally to measure and understand the changing international and regional business backgrounds. Our clients/customers conviction on our solutions and services has pushed us in delivering always the best. Our advanced research solutions have helped them in appropriate decision-making and guidance for strategies to expand their business.

Contact Us:

Facts & Factors

Global Headquarters

Level 8, International Finance Center, Tower 2,8 Century Avenue, Shanghai,Postal 200120, ChinaTel: +86 21 80360450

Email:sales@fnfresearch.com

Web:https://www.fnfresearch.com

Sorry! The Author has not filled his profile.

See the article here:
Global Gene Therapy Market is Growing to Reach 6892 Million By 2027 - Market Research News 24

Going Gray Too Soon? Scientists Say It Really May Be Due to Stress – Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

Stress has long been anecdotally linked with prematurely graying hair. Its said, for example, that when Marie Antoinette was captured during the French Revolution, her hair turned white overnight. Anecdote this may be, but an international research team led by Harvard University scientists has now discovered how stress may, in fact, cause hair to gray. Their studies in mice and laboratory-grown cells showed that stress activates noradrenaline-releasing sympathetic nerves that are part of the fight-or-flight response, which in turn causes permanent damage to pigment-regenerating stem cells in hair follicles.

Everyone has an anecdote to share about how stress affects their body, particularly in their skin and hairthe only tissues we can see from the outside, said Ya-Chieh Hsu, PhD, the Alvin and Esta Star Associate Professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology at Harvard. We wanted to understand if this connection is true, and if so, how stress leads to changes in diverse tissues. Hair pigmentation is such an accessible and tractable system to start withand besides, we were genuinely curious to see if stress indeed leads to hair graying. Hsu is senior author of the teams paper, which is published in Nature, and titled, Hyperactivation of sympathetic nerves drives depletion of melanocyte stem cells.

Empirical as well as anecdotal evidence has linked stress with accelerated hair graying, which is the formation of hairs with no pigment, the authors stated. In recent history, for example, John McCain experienced severe injuries as a prisoner of war during the Vietnam War and lost color in his hair. However, the scientists acknowledged, despite this type of evidence, so far there has been little scientific validation of this link whether stressors are the causal factors, and whether stress-related changes occur at he level of somatic stem cells, remain poorly understood.

Hair follicles that produce new hairs cycle between phases of growth (anagen), degeneration (catagen), and rest (telogen). The hair follicle contains two types of stem cell, hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs), and pigment-forming melanocyte stem cells (MeSCs). For much of the cycle these stem cells are dormant, but they are activated during early anagen to form new pigmented hairs. The MeSCs act as a reservoir of pigment-producing cells, so when hair regenerates, some of the MeSC stem cells convert into pigment-producing cells that color the hair. differentiated melanocytes synthesize melanin to color the newly regenerated hair from the root, the scientists stated.

Stress affects the whole body, so to investigate any link between stress and hair graying, the authors first had to try to identify which body system was responsible. Their work involved a series of studies, starting with whole-body response and progressively zooming into individual organ systems, cell-to-cell interaction and then down to molecular dynamics. A range of research tools were employed, including methods to manipulate organs, nerves, and cell receptors.

The investigators initial hypothesis was that stress might cause an immune attack on pigment-producing cells. However, their experiments showed that mice lacking immune cells still showed hair graying. The team then looked for a link between stress, graying hair and cortisol, but this also proved negative. Using a combination of adrenalectomy, denervation, chemogenetics, cell ablation and knockout of the adrenergic receptor specifically in melanocyte stem cells, we find that the stress-induced loss of melanocyte stem cells is independent of immune attack or adrenal stress hormone, they noted. Stress always elevates levels of the hormone cortisol in the body, so we thought that cortisol might play a role, Hsu said. But surprisingly, when we removed the adrenal gland from the mice so that they couldnt produce cortisol-like hormones, their hair still turned gray under stress.

After systematically eliminating different possibilities, the researchers honed in on the sympathetic nerve system, which is responsible for the bodys fight-or-flight response. Sympathetic nerves branch out into each hair follicle on the skin. The teams experiments showed that stress causes these nerves to release noradrenaline, which gets taken up by the nearby MeSC pigment-regenerating stem cells.

This image illustrates the elaborate sympathetic innervation (green) around melanocyte stem cells (red). Acute stress induces hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system to release large amount of norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine drives rapid depletion of melanocyte stem cells and hair graying. [Bing Zhang and Ya-Chieh Hsu]The noradrenaline then triggers excessive activation of the stem cells, which effectively all convert into pigment-producing cells, prematurely depleting the reservoir. Under conditions of stress, the activation of these sympathetic nerves leads to burst release of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline (also known as norepinephrine), the team explained. This causes quiescent melanocyte stem cells to proliferate rapidly, and is followed by their differentiation, migration and permanent depletion from the niche.

We were conducting a study on pain using black C57 mice, a dark-furred laboratory strain, explained co-author Thiago Mattar Cunha, PhD, a researcher affiliated with the Center for Research on Inflammatory Diseases (CRID), a Research, Innovation and Dissemination Center (RIDC) funded by So Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) and hosted by the University of So Paulos Ribeiro Preto Medical School (FMRP-USP) in So Paulo State, Brazil. In this model, we administered a substance called resiniferatoxin to activate a receptor expressed by sensory nerve fibers and induce intense pain. Some four weeks after systemic injection of the toxin, a PhD student observed that the animals fur had turned completely white.

After repeated tests the CRID researchers concluded that the phenomenon was due to the application of resiniferatoxin, a naturally occurring chemical found in resin spurge (Euphorbia resinifera), a cactus-like plant native to Morocco. We set out to check the hypothesis that the loss of fur color resulted from pain-induced stress, Cunha said. We designed a very simple experiment to see if the phenomenon was dependent on activation of sympathetic nerve fibers.

After injecting resiniferatoxin into the mice, the animals were treated using guanethidine, an anti-hypertensive that can inhibit neurotransmission via sympathetic fibers. We observed that the process of fur color loss was blocked by the treatment, Cunha said. In another experiment, neurotransmission was interrupted by the surgical removal of sympathetic fibers. In this case, too, fur color was not lost in the weeks following pain induction.

This image illustrates the elaborate sympathetic innervation (magenta) around melanocyte stem cells (yellow). Acute stress induces hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system to release large amount of norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine drives rapid depletion of melanocyte stem cells and hair graying. [Bing Zhang and Ya-Chieh Hsu]These and other experiments conducted by our group demonstrated the participation of sympathetic innervation in achromotrichia and confirmed that pain is a powerful stressor in this model. But it remained to detail the mechanisms involved, Cunha noted. We used various methodologies to show that intense sympathetic activity speeds up differentiation significantly. In our model, therefore, pain accelerated the aging of the stem cells that produce melanin.

Hsu added, When we started to study this, I expected that stress was bad for the bodybut the detrimental impact of stress that we discovered was beyond what I imagined. After just a few days, all of the pigment-regenerating stem cells were lost. Once theyre gone, you cant regenerate pigment anymore. The damage is permanent.

Cunha noted, For the longest time its been said that stress makes the hair turn white but until now there was no scientific basis for this belief. Our study proved that the phenomenon does indeed occur, and we identified the mechanisms involved. In addition, we discovered a way of interrupting the process of hair color loss due to stress.

The researchers used RNA sequencing to explore the mechanisms that promote melanocyte stem cell differentiation, by comparing the gene expression profiles of mice that received the injection of resiniferatoxin, and developed pain, stress and fur color loss, with those of control mice injected with a placebo.We looked for genes whose expression was most altered after stress induction, and one caught our attention: the gene that encodes a protein called CDK [cyclin-dependent kinase]. This is an enzyme that participates in cell cycle regulation, Cunha said. When the researchers repeated the pain induction procedure and treated the mice with a CDK inhibitor, they found that melanocyte stem cell differentiation was prevented, as was fur color loss. This finding shows that CDK participates in the process and could, therefore, be a therapeutic target, Cunha said. Its too soon to know whether it will actually become a target someday in clinical practice, but its worth exploring further.

The researchers experiments demonstrated that when the sympathetic system is robustly activated, the fibers that innervate hair follicle bulbs release noradrenaline very near the melanocyte stem cells. We showed that melanocyte stem cells express the protein ADRB2 [2-adrenergic receptor], which is activated by noradrenaline, and we discovered that the stem cells differentiate when this receptor is activated by noradrenaline, Cunha said. To confirm the finding, the researchers repeated their tests using mice that had been genetically modified, so as not to express ADRB2. As suspected, the fur of these animals did not turn white after they were injected with resiniferatoxin. In another test, we injected noradrenaline directly into the skin of the mouse. As a result, the fur around the site of the injection turned white, Cunha said.

In a final set of studies, the group showed that cultured primary human melanocytes (melanin-producing cells obtained directly from the skin of a volunteer) treated with noradrenaline showed increased expression of CDK , which was similar to the findings in mice.

According to Cunha, the researchers do not yet know if there will be future aesthetic applications for their findings, such as the development of a drug that could stop us growing gray as we age. It would be necessary to see if a CDK inhibitor has side-effects, and if so whether they would be outweighed by the aesthetic benefit.

Co-author Isaac Chiu, PhD, assistant professor of immunobiology at Harvard Medical School, studies the interplay between nervous and immune systems. He said, we know that peripheral neurons powerfully regulate organ function, blood vessels, and immunity, but less is known about how they regulate stem cells. With this study, we now know that neurons can control stem cells and their function, and can explain how they interact at the cellular and molecular level to link stress with hair graying.

The researchers suggest that their results underscore the negative side effects of an otherwise protective evolutionary response. Acute stress, particularly the fight-or-flight response, has been traditionally viewed to be beneficial for an animals survival. But in this case, acute stress causes permanent depletion of stem cells, said postdoctoral fellow Bing Zhang, first author of the study. To go from the highest level to the smallest detail, we collaborated with many scientists across a wide range of disciplines, using a combination of different approaches to solve a very fundamental biological question.

The scientists also acknowledged that the reason for any interaction between nerves and MeSCs isnt known. The connection between the nervous system and pigment-producing cells is probably conserved during evolution they suggested. Squid, cuttlefish, and octopus are cephalopods that can rapidly change color for camouflage or to communicate. Their nervous system controls pigment-producing chromatophore cells, allowing very fast changes in color in response to threats or predators. Therefore, an attractive hypothesis is that sympathetic nerves might modulate MeSC activity, melanocyte migration or pigment production in situations independent of the hair cyclefor example, under bright sunlight or UV irradiation, the team suggested. Under extreme stress, however, hyperactivation of neuronal activities overstimulates the pathway, which drives the depletion of MeSCs.

The findings could help to provide new insights into the broader effects of stress on various organs and tissues, which could ultimately lead to new approaches to modifying or blocking the damaging effects of stress. By understanding precisely how stress affects stem cells that regenerate pigment, weve laid the groundwork for understanding how stress affects other tissues and organs in the body, Hsu said. Understanding how our tissues change under stress is the first critical step towards eventual treatment that can halt or revert the detrimental impact of stress. We still have a lot to learn in this area.

Excerpt from:
Going Gray Too Soon? Scientists Say It Really May Be Due to Stress - Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News