By adding theright concoction of ingredients, scientists can reprogram youreverydaysomatic cell intoan inducedpluripotentstemcell(IPSC) that is,aculturedcellthat has the ability todifferentiate into almost any othercelltypein response to specificenvironmentalfactors, similar to an embryonic stem cell. Thisinnovativetechnology allows the study of the molecularmechanismsofearlydevelopmentanddisease,withouttheethical restrictionsassociated withembryonic stem cells.
Not surprisingly, the possibility of utilizing induced pluripotent stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine is of important focus to many scientists. In a recent post, we touched on the potential ability of vitamins A and C to enhance the erasure of epigenetic memory required for cell reprogramming. Because these special types of cells can propagate indefinitely and form any other cell type in the body such as neurons, liver, and heart cells we may be able to replace lost organs, repair tissue, and even generate type O red blood cells, which can be used in transfusions for people with any blood type.
Greatso whats the problem?
Unfortunately, thereare drawbacksto this technology, namely the efficiency of reprogramming.Many IPSCsdo not actually gain completepluripotency. Epigenetic modifications are heavily implicated during the reprogramming process whereby the epigenetic makeup of the cell is completely overhauledto first encourage the expression of pluripotent genes and thenremodelled to encourage the expression of genes associated withthefinalcell typethattheIPSCwillbecome. As the epigenome plays a crucial role inreprogramming,inconsistenciesof pluripotencyacrossIPSClinesmaybedue toepigenetic barriers.
TRIM28: a novel epigenetic barrier
A team of scientists headed by Dr. Miles from The Netherlands Cancer institute recently uncovered a novel epigenetic barrier to the efficient induction of pluripotent stem cell reprogramming. Published in a recent issue of STEM CELLS, the paper highlights the use of a shRNA screen targeting over 670 epigenetic modifiers, revealing the involvement of TRIM28 in the resistance of cells transitioning from somatic to pluripotent state.
TRIM28, or Tripartite motif-containing 28, is involved in mediating transcriptional control by interacting with a certain domain in numerous transcription factors. Previous research shows that it plays a role in cellular differentiation and proliferation, DNA damage repair response, transcriptional regulation, and apoptosis.
By blocking the expression TRIM28 during reprogramming, the group demonstrated increases in the number of cells reaching pluripotency, as well as increased expression of a selection of 143 genes.
Analysis of the list of genes revealed the most statistically significant gene ontology term was unclassified. This result indicates TRIM28 does not regulate a specific pathway during reprogramming, states the authors.
It is known that TRIM28 gene encodes for a protein known to be involved in transcriptional regulation via the recruitment and formation of protein complexes that maintain repressive chromatin. Given this, researchers proposed the gene expression alterations, hence reprogramming differences, were likely to be associated with chromatin modification.
SEE ALSO: Maternal Smoking Epigenetically Harms Child Development
Subsequent tests supported this notion by establishing a proportion of the 143 genes to be located near H3K9me3 a repressive histone H3 modification which has shown to influence the transcription of genes that impedes the IPSC reprogramming process. When TRIM28 expression was blocked, the closer genes are to the H3K9me3 the greater the increase in expression. This suggests the role of TRIM28 in repressing the expression of genes involved in reprogramming via the maintenance of H3K9me3 heterochromatin site.
Whyis this important?
Due to the potential to produce almost anyothertype of cell, thetechnology ofIPSChas sparked excitement in the clinical sciences. The implementation ofIPSCto repair damaged or diseased tissue or to test/develop personalised medicines ison the horizon.By establishing barriers preventing the efficient transition of differentiated cells to pluripotent cells scientist canrefineIPSC generationto make the future clinical use ofIPSCsboth safe and efficient.
Source: Miles, D. C., de Vries, N. A., Gisler, S., Lieftink, C., Akhtar, W., Gogola, E., & Beijersbergen, R. L. (2017). TRIM28 is an Epigenetic Barrier to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Reprogramming.STEM CELLS,35(1), 147-157.
- Mutations Linked to Huntington's Increase Cells' Resistance to Manganese, Study Finds - Huntington's Disease News - October 15th, 2019
- Stem Cells Market : Insights Into the Competitive Scenario of the Market - Online News Guru - October 11th, 2019
- 'Rewind Therapeutics' and Remyelination - SciTech Europa - October 11th, 2019
- Cell Expansion Market is expected to rise at a remarkable CAGR during the Forecast Period 2016 2024 - Space Market Research - October 9th, 2019
- Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market 2019 Innovative Trends and Insights Research upto 2024 - News Adopt - October 5th, 2019
- New Rett Therapies May Stem From X-chromosome Reactivation Findings - Rett Syndrome News - October 5th, 2019
- Stemming the Tide of Alzheimer's - UCI News - October 5th, 2019
- Skin-Derived Heart Cells Help Uncover the Genetic Foundations of Cardiac Function - Technology Networks - October 5th, 2019
- IGIB finds a protein with better precision in gene-editing - The Hindu - October 5th, 2019
- Novel Cell Sorting and Separation Market: Focus on Acoustophoresis, Buoyancy-activated, Dielectrophoresis, Magnetophoretics, Microfluidics,... - October 5th, 2019
- Fabry Heart Cells Grown in Lab Dish Give Hints to Cardiac Complications - Fabry Disease News - September 27th, 2019
- Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market 2019 Analysis & Forecast Report 2024 - Analytics News - September 24th, 2019
- Gene regulators work together for oversized impact on schizophrenia risk - National Institutes of Health - September 24th, 2019
- Blood Pressure and Prostate Treatment May Prevent or Slow Parkinson's, Early Study Suggests - Parkinson's News Today - September 24th, 2019
- New Gene Editing Technique Shown to Correct COL7A1 Gene in RDEB Cells - Epidermolysis Bullosa News - September 24th, 2019
- Vaginitis Therapeutics Market Overview with Detailed Analysis, Competitive lands - News By ReportsGO - September 24th, 2019
- Efavirenz/Tenofovir/Emtricitabine Combination Drug Market Overview with Detailed - News by Intelligence Journal - September 24th, 2019
- Can Consciousness be Created? - University Observer Online - September 24th, 2019
- Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market 2019 Industry Growth with CAGR 12.7% in Forecast to 2024 - Indian Columnist - September 21st, 2019
- Adipose Tissue-derived Stem Cells Market Size Set for Rapid Growth and Trend by2018 2028 - My Health Reporter - September 21st, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Market Estimated to be Driven by Innovation and Industrialization - Analytics News - September 20th, 2019
- 2024 Projections: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market Report by Type, Application and Regional Outlook - TheSlapClap - September 20th, 2019
- Angelman Foundation Honors 4 for Their Research, Advocacy Efforts - Angelman Syndrome News - September 20th, 2019
- Dicerna And DCR-A1AT In Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency-Associated Liver Disease - Seeking Alpha - September 20th, 2019
- Fate Therapeutics raises $173 million in offering - The San Diego Union-Tribune - September 19th, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market is expected to reach US$ 2299.5 Mn by the end of the forecast period in 2026 - Zebvo - September 19th, 2019
- induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) market reached $2.1 billion in 2016 The market should reach $3.6 billion in 2021 - ScoopJunction - September 19th, 2019
- Stem Cell-Derived Cells Market to Record an Exponential CAGR by 2025 - NewsVarsity - September 19th, 2019
- Common Prostate Drug May Slow Progression of Parkinson, Researchers Say - AJMC.com Managed Markets Network - September 19th, 2019
- Automated Large-Scale Production of Retinal Organoids - Advanced Science News - September 19th, 2019
- How a Centuries-Old Sculpting Method Is Helping 3D Print Organs With Blood Vessels - Singularity Hub - September 19th, 2019
- Study indicates early infusion of mononuclear cells could aid in recovery from stroke - Yahoo Finance - September 19th, 2019
- BIOLIFE4D Successfully 3D Bioprints a Miniature Human HeartOne Step Closer to Bioprinting Transplantable Organs - BioSpace - September 19th, 2019
- Scientists recognize genes as master regulators in schizophrenia - Tech Explorist - September 19th, 2019
- Japanese lab to collaborate with Christian Dior in iPS cell research - Japan Today - September 19th, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Market Research Report 2019 From TBRC has Been Updated - Market Research Gazette - September 19th, 2019
- What are Induced Pluripotent Stem (IPS) Cells? - Stem Cell ... - June 5th, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell - ScienceDirect - June 5th, 2019
- Stem Cell Glossary A Closer Look at Stem Cells - June 2nd, 2019
- Stemming retinal regeneration with pluripotent stem cells ... - May 27th, 2019
- Current Strategies and Challenges for Purification of ... - May 27th, 2019
- IPSCjun19 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: differentiation ... - May 24th, 2019
- Induced pluripotent stem cells don't increase genetic ... - April 30th, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells - Embryo Project - April 25th, 2019
- What Are Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells? - Stem Cell: The ... - April 13th, 2019
- Gene therapy-corrected autologous hepatocyte-like cells ... - April 3rd, 2019
- Regenerative Potential Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells ... - March 28th, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) Media and Reagents for ... - March 21st, 2019
- Embryonic or Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Markers: R&D Systems - March 11th, 2019
- Differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into ... - March 8th, 2019
- Do You Know the 5 Types of Stem Cells? | BioInformant - March 4th, 2019
- Global transcriptome analysis of pig induced pluripotent ... - March 4th, 2019
- Hypoimmunogenic derivatives of induced pluripotent stem ... - February 20th, 2019
- microRNA-690 regulates induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs ... - February 17th, 2019
- Induced pluripotent stem cells have been generated for the ... - February 17th, 2019
- Induction of Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem ... - February 17th, 2019
- Pluripotent stem cells for improved reprogrammed Human ... - February 3rd, 2019
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Market Is Expected to Reach US ... - February 3rd, 2019
- Pluripotent Stem Cell Flow Kit (FMC001): R&D Systems - February 3rd, 2019
- induced pluripotent stem cell | The Science of Parkinson's - February 3rd, 2019
- What Are Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells? | Intro to the ... - January 26th, 2019
- Pluripotent Stem Cells - Stemcell Technologies - December 30th, 2018
- ATCC-HYR0103 Human Induced Pluripotent Stem (IPS) Cells ATCC ... - December 30th, 2018
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Report Research ... - December 30th, 2018
- Methods of Producing Thymic Emigrants from Induced ... - December 24th, 2018
- Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Analysis (2018 ... - December 24th, 2018
- Human being induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) display ... - December 24th, 2018
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Overview - genengnews.com - December 8th, 2018
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Market to Reach US$ 2,299.5 ... - September 29th, 2018
- Use Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models To Elucidate ... - September 29th, 2018
- What Are Induced Pluripotent Cells? - Stem Cell Centers ... - August 23rd, 2018
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) - August 19th, 2018
- Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells - Cell Applications - August 19th, 2018
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell FAQs | Sigma-Aldrich - July 4th, 2018
- Induced pluripotent stem cell | biology | Britannica.com - July 4th, 2018
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell India - StemCellCareIndia - July 2nd, 2018
- Cell potency - Wikipedia - June 27th, 2018
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Cardiovascular Diagnostics - October 14th, 2017
- Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | The Progeria Research Foundation - October 14th, 2017
- Disease-Specific & Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem ... - September 27th, 2017