Archive for the ‘Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells’ Category

ATCC-HYR0103 Human Induced Pluripotent Stem (IPS) Cells ATCC …

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Dec 30 2018

Complete Growth Medium

ATCC iPSCs have been adapted to feeder- and serum-free culture conditions.

The base medium for this cell line is Pluripotent Stem Cell SFM XF/FF (ATCC No. ACS-3002) which is a ready-to-use medium for serum-free and feeder-free iPSC culture.

Cell culture dishes are coated with CellMatrix Basement Membrane Gel (ATCC No. ACS-3035) to provide a surface for the attachment of iPSCs.

Coating Procedure:

Dilute CellMatrix in DMEM:F12 to a working concentration of 150 g/mL. For instance, if the protein concentration of CellMatrix (on certificate of analysis) is 14 mg/mL, then: (4 mL) x (0.15 mg/mL)/(14 mg/mL) = 0.043 mL. Therefore, add 43 L CellMatrix directly in 4 mL cold DMEM: F-12 Medium

ROCK Inhibitor Y27632 is not necessary each time the culture medium is changed. It is required when cells are recovering from thaw on CellMatrix Gel-coated dishes containing 5 mL Pluripotent Stem Cell XF/FF medium/6-cm dish.

This protocol is designed to passage stem cell colonies cultured in a 6 cm dish, using Stem Cell Dissociation Reagent (ATCC ACS-3010) to detach the cell colonies. The recommended spilt ratio is 1:4. Volumes should be adjusted according to the size and number of the tissue culture vessels to be processed.

Lyophilized proteins tend to be hygroscopic. Bring the vial of Stem Cell Dissociation Reagent to room temperature before opening. The vial should not be cool to the touch. Once opened, the lyophilized material should be stored desiccated. The specific activity of the reagent is found on the certificate of analysis. Dissolve the appropriate amount of Stem Cell Dissociation Reagent in DMEM: F-12 Medium to prepare a 0.5 U/mL working solution.

Note: Addition of ROCK inhibitor has been shown to increase the survival rate. The use of ROCK inhibitor may cause a transient spindle-like morphology effect on the cells. However, the colony morphology will recover after subsequent media change without ROCK inhibitor.

For optimal results, cryopreserve stem cell colonies when the cell cultures are 80% confluent. This protocol is designed to cryopreserve stem cell colonies cultured in a 6 cm dish.

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ATCC-HYR0103 Human Induced Pluripotent Stem (IPS) Cells ATCC ...

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Report Research …

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Dec 30 2018

Pluripotent stem cells are embryonic stem cells that have the potential to form all adult cell types and help in repairing of damaged tissues in the human body. An induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs, are taken from any tissue (usually skin or blood) from a child or an adult and is genetically modified to behave like pluripotent stem cells or embryonic stem cells. iPSCs market is in emerging state mainly due to its ability to make any cell or tissue the body might need to encounter wide range of diseases like diabetes, spinal cord injury, leukaemia or heart disease, these cells can potentially be customized to provide a perfect genetic match for any patient. In 2018, the global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells market size was xx million US$ and it is expected to reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, with a CAGR of xx% during 2019-2025.

This report focuses on the global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players. The study objectives are to present the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells development in United States, Europe and China.

The key players covered in this study Fujifilm Holding Corporation Astellas Pharma Fate Therapeutics Bristol-Myers Squibb Company ViaCyte Celgene Corporation Aastrom Biosciences Acelity Holdings StemCells Japan Tissue Engineering Organogenesis

Market segment by Type, the product can be split into Hepatocytes Fibroblasts Keratinocytes Amniotic Cells Others

Market segment by Application, split into Academic Research Drug Development And Discovery Toxicity Screening Regenerative Medicine

Market segment by Regions/Countries, this report covers United States Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India Central & South America

The study objectives of this report are: To analyze global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players. To present the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells development in United States, Europe and China. To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their development plan and strategies. To define, describe and forecast the market by product type, market and key regions.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells are as follows: History Year: 2014-2018 Base Year: 2018 Estimated Year: 2019 Forecast Year 2019 to 2025 For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2018 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

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Methods of Producing Thymic Emigrants from Induced …

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Dec 24 2018

Hematopoietic and pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into T cells with potential clinical utility. Current approaches for in vitro T cell production rely on Notch signaling and artificial mimicry of thymic selection. However, these approaches result in unconventional or phenotypically aberrant T cells; which may lead to unpredictable behavior in clinical use. Thus, there exists a need for improved methods of generating conventional T cells in vitro from stem cells. Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have developed a novel method for the in vitro differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into induced pluripotent stem cell thymic emigrant (iTE) cells. Cells produced by this method are functionally equivalent to natural nave CD8+ T cells. The approach utilizes improved fetal thymic organ culture methodology to mature progenitor cells into conventional T cells in the presence of extrinsic Notch signaling. Cell culture conditions further provide for positive and negative selection to ensure proper maturation. This method produces conventional T cells that are suitable for clinical applications such adoptive cell therapy.

The NCI, Surgery Branch, is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in licensing or collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize this method of generating nave T cells from iPSCs.

Image: A visual allegory of the generation of iPSC-derived thymic emigrants (in red). Photo credit: Michael J. Kruhlak, Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch (ETIB)

CCR News:

Development Stage: Pre-clinical (in vivo)

Related Invention(s): E-133-2017


Raul Vizcardo (NCI)more inventions...

Nicholas Klemen (NCI)more inventions...

Nicholas Restifo (NCI)more inventions...

Intellectual Property: Application No. 62/433,591 Application No. PCT/US2017/065986 Publications:Vizcardo, R, et al. Generation of tumor antigen-specific iPSC-derived thymic emigrants using a 3D thymic culture system. PMID 29562175 Collaboration Opportunity: Licensing and research collaboration

Licensing Contact: John Hewes, Ph.D. Email: Phone: 240-276-5515

OTT Reference No: E-250-2016 Updated: Dec 14, 2018

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Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Analysis (2018 …

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Dec 24 2018

The Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market (2018 2023): Global Industry Analysis research publication offers readers with a comprehensive knowledge of the induced pluripotent stem cells market scenario in forthcoming years. This report guides through various segments of the global induced pluripotent stem cells market with market size status and forecast 2023. These segments are determined by sizing the market with induced pluripotent stem cells type, end-use segment, and geography. Furthermore, the report offers strategic perspectives on market growth factors such as drivers, restraints, induced pluripotent stem cells market demand and supplier opportunities, technological developments and how they will shape the induced pluripotent stem cells industry.

Market Summary: The main objective of the report is to track the market events such as product launches, induced pluripotent stem cells market ups and downs in terms of volume US$ (mn) and volume (units) from 2013 to 2023, various development activities related to induced pluripotent stem cells products, latest trends, and technologies used in this field. The first overview section of the report comprised with a definition of the global induced pluripotent stem cells market, classification and regional outlook of the market. The regional analysis being used in this report that specifies opportunities available and growth prospects of the global induced pluripotent stem cells market within the specified regions. It additionally provides information related to value chain with a curated list of raw materials suppliers, distributors, induced pluripotent stem cells manufacturers, technological solutions providers and end users of the induced pluripotent stem cells.

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Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market: Competitive Insights

The crucial section of the report describes the vendor landscape of the global induced pluripotent stem cells market, it includes the profile of leading market players currently operating in the market. The analysis provides information about their market revenues, products manufactured by them, induced pluripotent stem cells manufacturing process and plants, opportunities that are motivating these players and business strategies followed by them. The induced pluripotent stem cells report helps businesses compete better using this scale of reference, although planning their future developments to counter the movements of the other players and stay ahead in the competition.

List of Market Players Profiled in the Report

Segments Covered in the Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Market Report

The research study examines forecasts revenue growth of induced pluripotent stem cells market at global, regional & country levels and provides inclusive insight on the market developments and opportunities available in various segments of the induced pluripotent stem cells market from 2013 to 2023. For the purpose of this study, report segmented the global market based on region, end-user, and induced pluripotent stem cells type. The market shares contributed by these segments are formulated to give the readers a 360-degree assessment of the global induced pluripotent stem cells market.

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What will you discover from induced pluripotent stem cells report?

A comprehensive analysis of current and future market demand for the induced pluripotent stem cells, covering six world regions, end-use industries, growing markets for the induced pluripotent stem cells.

The report employs a combination of primary and secondary research methods for segmenting and estimating quantitative facets of the global induced pluripotent stem cells market.

Exclusive research on established and emerging market players to get competitive advantage of the global induced pluripotent stem cells market.

Extensive analysis of the market drivers, restraints, review of latest trends and technologies used, market openings for the induced pluripotent stem cells.

Details of induced pluripotent stem cells market sizes and five-year forecasts, segmented by product type, end use segment, and region and country worldwide.

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Human being induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) display …

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Dec 24 2018

Human being induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) display great promise for obesity treatment as they represent an unlimited source of brown/brite adipose progenitors (BAPs). their differentiation at a higher level. Open in a separate window Number 1 Differentiation of hiPSC-BAPs in EGM adipogenic medium.hiPSC-BAPs were induced to undergo differentiation in a traditional adipogenic medium routinely useful for adult APs (Adult) or within the EGM adipogenic moderate (EGM). (a) Twenty-five times afterwards, multilocular adipocytes had been detectable beneath the microscope only once cells had been maintained within the EGM adipogenic moderate; bar range: 50m. (b) RNAs had been prepared and examined for adipocyte marker appearance. Beliefs are means??SEM. n?=?6. *means p? ?0.05 and **means p? ?0.01. The TGF pathway lately emerged as a crucial anti-adipogenic player with the activation of Smad 2/314,15,16. The powerful anti-adipogenic aftereffect of TGF1 was verified on adult-BAPs (Fig. S2B). Oddly enough, members from the TGF family members such as for example and had been expressed through the initial times of hiPSC-BAP differentiation (Fig. 2a). and appearance was down-regulated in differentiated hiPSC-BAPs set alongside the appearance amounts in undifferentiated cells, but continued to be at a rate sufficient to keep the Smad2/3 pathway energetic ((phosphoSmad, Fig. 2b). These data recommended that hiPSC-BAPs secreted bioactive TGF family that may lock hiPSC-BAP differentiation. In contract with this hypothesis, moderate conditioned by hiPSCs-BAPs shown a powerful anti-adipogenic influence on adult-BAP differentiation (Fig. S2). An ERK inhibitor (UO126 at 5?M) or even a p38MAPK inhibitor (SB203580 in 10?M) was struggling to change the anti-adipogenic aftereffect of Rabbit polyclonal to CREB1 hiPSCs-BAP conditioned moderate on adult-BAPs (not shown). On the other hand, the anti-adipogenic aftereffect of the conditioned-medium was inhibited with the addition of 5?M SB431542, an inhibitor from the TGF signalling pathway17. As proven in Fig. 2b, energetic Smad 2/3 pathway could possibly be inhibited PF-03394197 manufacture upon SB431542 addition through the 1st 4 days of hiPSC-BAP differentiation. Then, a dramatically increase in and manifestation was observed (Fig. 2c). Transient inhibition of the TGF pathway, during the 1st 3 days of differentiation only, was sufficient to promote differentiation (Fig. S3). Completely, these data underline the essential part of TGF pathway in switching off hiPSC-BAP differentiation. Open in a separate window Number 2 Anti-adipogenic activity secreted by hiPSC-BAPs was reversed by SB431542.(a) Expression of TGF family members in undifferentiated (day time 0) and differentiated hiPSC-BAPs. (b) Activated Smad2/3 in undifferentiated and differentiated hiPSC-BAPs in the absence or presence of 5?M of PF-03394197 manufacture SB431542. (c) hiPSC-BAPs were induced to undergo differentiation in EGM2 adipogenic medium in the absence or PF-03394197 manufacture presence of 5?M SB431542. Twenty-five days later, RNAs were prepared and analyzed for the indicated genes. PF-03394197 manufacture Ideals are means??SEM. n?=?4. *means p? ?0.05 and **means p? ?0.01. Recognition of extrinsic factors advertising hiPSCs-BAP differentiation The commercial EGM medium consists of IGF1, FGF2, VEGF, EGF, hydrocortisone and ascorbic acid with no info concerning their concentrations. We showed that FGF2, VEGF and IGF1 were dispensable for hiPSC-BAP differentiation. In contrast, hydrocortisone, ascorbic acid and EGF were required (Fig. S4A). Finally, traditional adipogenic factors supplemented with SB431542 (5?M) and defined concentrations of ascorbic acid (25.5?g/ml), hydrocortisone (4?g/ml) PF-03394197 manufacture and EGF (10?ng/ml), hereafter named defined hiPSC-adipogenic medium, dramatically enhanced adipocyte formation and manifestation of adipogenic markers in the protein level (Fig. 3a,b). The defined hiPSC-adipogenic medium supported differentiation at a level identical to that when cells were maintained in total EGM2 adipogenic medium (Fig. S4B). Except SB431542, none of these essential factors was able to inhibit Smad2/3 activation (Fig. S4C). Importantly, hiPSC-BAP adipocytes were then able to respond to insulin as phosphorylated forms of IRS1, AKT and Erk1/2 were upregulated upon acute insulin administration (Fig. 3c). hiPSC-BAP progenies were also able to respond to forskolin, a chemical mimicking -adrenergic activation, by increasing gene manifestation and lipolysis (Fig. 3d,e). Overall, these data showed that adipocytes generated from hiPSC-BAPs were responsive to an adrenergic stimulus and displayed an active insulin signaling pathway, the hallmark of functional brownish/brite adipocytes. Interestingly, mesenchymal cells originated from two additional hiPSC sources and.

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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Overview –

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Dec 08 2018

February 15, 2010 (Vol. 30, No. 4)

Vi Chu Ph.D. R&D manager EMD Millipore

Review of Opportunities and Challenges in this Rapidly Expanding Field of Study

The ability to reprogram somatic cells to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has generated tremendous interest and discussion since iPS cells were first produced from mouse cells in 2006 and human cells in 2007.

The reversion of differentiated cells to a state resembling embryonic stem cells offers a wealth of opportunities for disease researchers. Interest in iPS cells is expanding rapidly beyond the domain of stem cell experts to researchers modeling complex diseases in vitro and pursuing novel therapeutics.

With iPS cell technology, you can now take a skin biopsy from a patient with a genetic disease such as familial Alzheimer or Lou Gehrig disease and turn their somatic cells into stem cells, explains Chad Cowan, Ph.D., of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute. You can then take those stem cells and turn them into cell types that might be affected in the disease.

Along with the opportunities offered by iPS cells, practical challenges still abound. Culturing stem cells relies on both science and art and defining just what exactly constitutes a stem or iPS cell is stimulating a good deal of discussion.

Having standards for iPS cells could help define the differences between these murine embryonic stem cells and their induced counterparts.

Disease Modeling

Dr. Cowans lab is using iPS cells to support studies of obesity and metabolic disorders. While the lab can easily obtain fat cells from patients, these cells cant be cultured over the long term. We can keep the fat cells alive for a short period of time but that only allows us to do a one-time endpoint assay. It doesnt allow us to tease out the complexities of what might be going wrong in a patient with a metabolic disorder. The ability to make patient-specific fat cells from iPS cells completely changes the game.

With iPS cells, the lab can conduct dozens of assays to identify differences in fat cells from a person with a metabolic disorder such as type 2 diabetes versus a person with normal body weight or someone without diabetes. The ability to take a single genotype and potentially make any of the tissues that might be involved in a metabolic disorder such as hypothalamus, pancreatic beta cells, and hepatocytes, could lead to powerful disease models.

In his lab at the University of California, Santa Barbara, Dennis Clegg, Ph.D., is using iPS cells as one tool to study the loss of vision in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In AMD, the degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells appears to cause the death of neighboring rods and cones in the macular region of the central retina.

Dr. Cleggs lab is evaluating the use of iPS-derived RPE cells to treat AMD and using iPS cell lines to create ocular cells, which can be used to study how the eye develops. The real utility of iPS cells is that you can study human cells and processes in ways you couldnt do before, notes Dr. Clegg.

Culture Challenge

iPS cells, in particular those that are human-derived, can be challenging to culture especially for those researchers who havent previously worked with stem cells. The challenges they present are similar to those encountered when culturing human embryonic stem cells, including:

For researchers who havent previously cultured stem cells, I suggest first working with mouse-derived iPS cells. These cells tend to be more robust than human cells and conditions for successful culture are well defined. Many researchers first test their hypotheses using mouse iPS cells and then transition to a human model system.

The technology to create iPS cells is evolving rapidly. The first studies reporting the creation of iPS cells used retroviral vectors to integrate a set of DNA transcription factors directly into the somatic cell genome. Upon activation, these genes convert the cells from their adult, differentiated status to an embryonic-like state. This process required multiple retroviral vectors in order to insert four different viruseseach vector delivering one reprogramming gene into the somatic cells DNA.

Since these first studies were published, researchers have been seeking ways to reprogram somatic cells without using retroviral vectors and avoiding use of transcription factors such as c-Myc that are known oncogenes. Viral delivery of transcription factors can also disrupt normal gene expression when the vectors integrate into the genome. The high number of genomic integrations15 to 20that typically occur when multiple viruses are used for reprogramming poses a safety risk if the cells are to be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, Boston University scientists developed a highly efficient method for creating iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts using a single viral vector instead of the multiple viruses typically required for reprogramming. Four commonly used vectors are incorporated into a single lentiviral vector containing all four genes.

If iPS cells are to be used for therapeutic purposes, permanent integration of transcription factors into the genome becomes a problem. Alternative approaches to reprogramming include use of adenoviral delivery as the adenovirus does not integrate into the genome and transient transfection with transcription factors. Ultimately, it may be possible to use proteins or small molecules to direct the reprogramming process.

Standards, Anyone?

The rapid development and continued evolution of iPS technology has sparked discussions about the need for establishing standards to guide the field.

As researchers seek new methods to create iPS cells without genetic modification and the use of these cells to develop disease models continues to expand rapidly, questions arise as to whether these cells have the same properties and potential as embryonic stem cells. How can a researcher know for certain that he or she has generated iPS cells? Is there a minimum set of criteria for assessing whether a somatic cell is fully pluripotent or only partially reprogrammed?

Adding to this complexity, researchers also seek to understand the variation between iPS cell lines derived from a common somatic source.

Dr. Cleggs lab is looking at the similarities and differences between iPS cell lines derived from human fetal RPE cells. The question we were trying to address, describes Dr. Clegg, is if we take those cells down to iPS cells and just let them spontaneously differentiate, will they have some sort of epigenetic memory and tend to re-differentiate back into RPE or something else?

The first line we looked at snapped back in large quantities to RPE cells, reports Dr. Clegg. But each subsequent line we looked at was different. Thats an important lesson for people to understandeach iPS line thats generated is slightly different, just like each embryonic stem cell line is slightly different. They have different propensities for differentiation. They may have different epigenetics. They may have different expression patterns.

Were still learning to define what is the best iPS cell, notes Dr. Cowan. The best function identically to an embryonic stem cell. It remains pluripotent, expands, and self-renews and it can differentiate into the types of tissues youre interested in.

An article by Maherali and Hochedlinger (Cell Stem Cell Protocol Review, December 4, 2008) suggests a minimal set of criteria that should be fulfilled in order to ascertain that a genuine iPS cell has been generated. The criteria include:

With human iPS cells, pluripotency can be assessed based on teratoma formation, which is a specific type of tumor containing cells from all three germ layers.

Researchers are also probing the similarity of iPS cell and embryonic cells through microarray studies, high-throughput sequencing, assessment of DNA methylation status at pluripotent cell specific genes, and by examining a range of protein biomarkers.

As our understanding of the similarities and differences between iPS cells and embryonic stem cells grows, new tools to identify and compare these cell types are needed. For example, live-cell imaging can be used to distinguish between human iPS cells and partially reprogrammed cells.

While standards provide a good basis of comparison, Dr. Cowan suggests that standards can be restrictive. The standards are naturally evolving. We certainly need to maintain a minimum standard and recognize the standard will change over time. Within a year or two, there will probably be a new set of guidelines available. But there may be times when you may not want to make something that is an embryonic cell.

In fact, it may be more to your advantage to somehow uniquely trap a cell so that it is lineage-committed to something that can replicate in culture indefinitely but really only thinks of itself as lung, for example, and so would only ever differentiate back to lung cell types.

While a great deal remains to be learned about iPS cells, they represent a powerful new research tool. In addition to their potential impact on the field of regenerative medicine, use of iPS cells to dissect complicated diseases at the cellular level will provide valuable new insights supporting drug discovery. As we learn more about the nature of iPS cells, standards will certainly evolve and new tools will become available to facilitate efficient creation and routine culture.

Vi Chu, Ph.D. (, is R&D manager, stem cell/cell biology at Millipore.

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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Overview -

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Market to Reach US$ 2,299.5 …

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Sep 29 2018

NEW YORK, May 31, 2018 /PRNewswire/

Ongoing Research to Make iPS Cell a Breakthrough Technology for Clinical Research

The healthcare industry has been focusing on excessive research and development in the last couple of decades to ensure that the need to address issues related to the availability of drugs and treatments for certain chronic diseases is effectively met. Healthcare researchers and scientists at the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine of the Hong Kong University have successfully demonstrated the utilization of human induced pluripotent stem cells or hiPSCs from the skin cells of the patient for testing therapeutic drugs.

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The success of this research suggests that scientists have crossed one more hurdle towards using stem cells in precision medicine for the treatment of patients suffering from sporadic hereditary diseases. iPSCs are the new generation approach towards the prevention and treatment of diseases that takes into account patients on an individual basis considering their genetic makeup, lifestyle, and environment. Along with the capacity to transform into different body cell types and same genetic composition of the donors, hiPSCs have surfaced as a promising cell source to screen and test drugs.

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In the present research, hiPSC was synthesized from patients suffering from a rare form of hereditary cardiomyopathy owing to the mutations in Lamin A/C related cardiomyopathy in their distinct families. The affected individuals suffer from sudden death, stroke, and heart failure at a very young age. As on date, there is no exact treatment available for this condition.

This team in Hong Kong tested a drug named PTC124 to suppress specific genetic mutations in other genetic diseases into the iPSC transformed heart muscle cells. While this technology is being considered as a breakthrough in clinical stem cell research, the team at Hong Kong University is collaborating with drug companies regarding its clinical application.

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The unique properties of iPS cells provides extensive potential to several biopharmaceutical applications. iPSCs are also used in toxicology testing, high throughput, disease modeling, and target identification. This type of stem cell has the potential to transform drug discovery by offering physiologically relevant cells for tool discovery, compound identification, and target validation. A new report by Persistence Market Research (PMR) states that the global induced pluripotent stem or iPS cell market is expected to witness a strong CAGR of 7.0% from 2018 to 2026. In 2017, the market was worth US$ 1,254.0 Mn and is expected to reach US$ 2,299.5 Mn by the end of the forecast period in 2026.

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Customization to be the Key Focus of Market Players

Due to the evolving needs of the research community, the demand for specialized cell lines have increased to a certain point where most vendors offering these products cannot depend solely on sales from catalog products. The quality of the products and lead time can determine the choices while requesting custom solutions at the same time. Companies usually focus on establishing a strong distribution network for enabling products to reach customers from the manufacturing units in a short time period.

Entry of Multiple Small Players to be Witnessed in the Coming Years

Several leading players have their presence in the global market; however, many specialized products and services are provided by small and regional vendors. By targeting their marketing strategies towards research institutes and small biotechnology companies, these new players have swiftly established their presence in the market.

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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Market to Reach US$ 2,299.5 ...

Use Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models To Elucidate …

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Sep 29 2018

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Cell & Molecular Biology

Jean Bennett

Choroideremia (CHM) is a rare monogenic, X-linked recessive inherited retinal degenerative disease caused by mutations in the Rab Escort Protein-1 (REP1) encoding CHM gene. CHM is characterized by childhood-onset night blindness (nyctalopia), progressive peripheral vision loss due to the degeneration of neural retina, RPE and choroid in a peripheral-to-central fashion. Most of CHM mutations are loss-of-function mutations leading to the complete lacking of REP1 protein. However, the primary retinal cell type leading to CHM and molecular mechanism remains unknown in addition to the fact of lacking proper disease models. In this study, we explored the utility of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived models of retinal pigment epithelium (iPSC-RPE) to study disease pathogenesis and a potential gene-based intervention in four different genetically distinct forms of CHM. A number of abnormal cell biologic, biochemical, and physiologic functions were identified in the CHM patient cells. Transduction efficiency testing using 11 recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1-9, 7m8 and 8b showed a differential cell tropism on iPSC and iPSC-derived RPE. We identified AAV7m8 to be optimal for both delivering transgenes to iPSC-RPEs as well as to appropriate target cells (RPE cells and rod photoreceptors) in the primate retina. To establish the proof of concept of AAV7m8 mediated CHM gene therapy, we developed a AAV7m8.hCHM viral vector, which delivers the human CHM cDNA under control of CMV-enhanced chicken -actin promoter (CA). Delivery of AAV7m8.CMV.CA.hCHM to CHM iPSC-RPEs restored protein prenylation, trafficking and phagocytosis defects. The results confirm that AAV-mediated delivery of the REP1-encoding gene can rescue defects in CHM iPSC-RPE regardless of the type of disease-causing mutation. The results also extend our understanding of mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of choroideremia.

Duong, Thu Thi, "Use Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models To Elucidate Retinal Disease Pathogenesis And To Develop Gene-Based Therapies" (2018). Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations. 3003.

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Use Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models To Elucidate ...

What Are Induced Pluripotent Cells? – Stem Cell Centers …

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Aug 23 2018

In 2006, researchers at Kyoto University in Japan established conditions that resulted in specialized adult cells that could be genetically reprogrammed to assume a stem cell-like state. These adult cells, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), were successfully reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state. This was achieved by introducing genes important for maintaining the essential properties of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Since then, scientists have greatly improved the techniques to engineer iPSCs, creating a powerful new way to de-differentiate cells. iPSCs give scientists an alternative, pluripotent cell to human embryonic which could help with some of the ethical concerns surrounding ESCs.

Induced pluripotent cells provide scientists and doctors tools for drug development, modeling disease, and improving transplantation medicine. Induced pluripotent cells also offer potential resources for cell-replacement therapies and regenerative medicine. One of the challenges with stem cell therapy progress has been with immune rejection the patients body attacks the injected stem cells because it doesnt view them as belonging there. But, with induced pluripotent cells, the source cells are derived from the patient so immune rejection would be much less common.

A field that has greatly prospered since the introduction of iPS cell technology is that of drug testing and development. Scientists can buy different human cells types derived from human iPS cells to test the efficacy or toxicity of new drugs. In the past, scientists used engineered cell lines or rats/mice to model human disease. The opportunity for scientists to use human iPS cells to study human diseases in corresponding human cell types has helped boost the efficacy and process of drug discovery.

The ability to reprogram cell types opens doors for treating numerous diseases including: Parkinsons disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimers disease and others. In the case of Alzheimers disease, scientists can take a patients skin or blood cells who is afflicted with Alzheimers, and reprogram the cells to produce iPS cells. Then, these iPS cells can be differentiated into numerous cell types found in our brains. These differentiated cells can provide information about what is different between these cells compared to someone who is not afflicted with Alzheimers disease. Understanding the disease better is one of the biggest steps forward to finding effective treatments and prevention methods.

Many diseases stem from genetic defects. Scientists are working to understand the link between disease and genotype. CRISPR is a gene editing technology which helps with understanding this link better. CRISPR is an acronym forClustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat. The name refers to the unique organization of short, partially palindromic repeated DNA sequences found in the genomes of bacteria and other microorganisms (Harvard, 2014). With CRISPR, a genetic defect from a patient-derived iPS cell can be corrected and then correlated with the original to assist scientists with identifying which genetic elements trigger disease progression.

Despite some of the setbacks and slow-downs of induced pluripotent cell science, the October issue of The Scientist stated that stem-cell based regenerative medicine is getting closer to clinical application. Scientists around the world are employing pluripotent cells to create various therapeutic cell types for diabetes and Parkinsons disease. In 2010, the Geron Corporation began the first FDA-approved clinical trial using human ESCs to treat spinal cord injury. Costs associated with clinical trials continues to be an obstacle for both patients and scientists. The Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine (formerly Advanced Cell Technology) is pursuing an embryonic stem cell treatment for macular degeneration, and launched a Phase 2 clinical trial last year.

The May 2017 edition of Science Daily reported that researchers have learned more about how stem cells develop into organs. These scientists were able to grow and purify the earliest lung progenitors that emerge from human stem cells, and then differentiate these cells into tiny bronchospheres that model cystic fibrosis. Scientists are hopeful that these findings will reveal, personalized medicine methods for treating lung disease.

Since their introduction in 2006, induced pluripotent stem cells have created quite a stir. Although their potential has yet to be realized, in time, they will take medicine places that are exciting and promising for those who suffer from disease and life-altering conditions.

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What Are Induced Pluripotent Cells? - Stem Cell Centers ...

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Aug 19 2018

Initially described in the pioneering work of Yamanaka and colleagues, the ability to "reprogram" differentiated somatic cells into a pluripotent embryonic stem cell-like state by retroviral mediated expression of four specific transcription factors has revolutionized our ability to develop new models to study human disease and represents a significant step towards patient-specific cell replacement therapies.

In addition to solving ethical concerns related to the use of blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells, the use of iPSCs for the generation of therapeutic cells for cell replacement therapy may avoid the requirement for post-transplant immune suppression because iPSCs can be generated directly from the transplant recipient and will therefore be genetically identical to the patient. Additionally, because it is possible to reprogram somatic cells derived from diseased individuals iPSC technology provides an important new platform for the development of new models of human disease. Thus, upon appropriate differentiation these cells can then be used to study normal and pathologic human tissue development in vitro, enabling new insights into disease pathology as well as a platform for the development of novel therapeutic agents and patient-specific cell replacement therapies.

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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)