Archive for the ‘Adult Stem Cells’ Category

stem cell | Definition, Types, Uses, Research, & Facts …

Adult Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Sep 16 2018

Stem cell, an undifferentiated cell that can divide to produce some offspring cells that continue as stem cells and some cells that are destined to differentiate (become specialized). Stem cells are an ongoing source of the differentiated cells that make up the tissues and organs of animals and plants. There is great interest in stem cells because they have potential in the development of therapies for replacing defective or damaged cells resulting from a variety of disorders and injuries, such as Parkinson disease, heart disease, and diabetes. There are two major types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, which are also called tissue stem cells.

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cardiovascular disease: Cardiac stem cells

Cardiac stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate (specialize) into mature heart cells and therefore could be used to repair damaged or diseased heart tissue, have garnered significant interest in the development of treatments for heart disease and cardiac defects. Cardiac stem

Embryonic stem cells (often referred to as ES cells) are stem cells that are derived from the inner cell mass of a mammalian embryo at a very early stage of development, when it is composed of a hollow sphere of dividing cells (a blastocyst). Embryonic stem cells from human embryos and from embryos of certain other mammalian species can be grown in tissue culture.

The most-studied embryonic stem cells are mouse embryonic stem cells, which were first reported in 1981. This type of stem cell can be cultured indefinitely in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a glycoprotein cytokine. If cultured mouse embryonic stem cells are injected into an early mouse embryo at the blastocyst stage, they will become integrated into the embryo and produce cells that differentiate into most or all of the tissue types that subsequently develop. This ability to repopulate mouse embryos is the key defining feature of embryonic stem cells, and because of it they are considered to be pluripotentthat is, able to give rise to any cell type of the adult organism. If the embryonic stem cells are kept in culture in the absence of LIF, they will differentiate into embryoid bodies, which somewhat resemble early mouse embryos at the egg-cylinder stage, with embryonic stem cells inside an outer layer of endoderm. If embryonic stem cells are grafted into an adult mouse, they will develop into a type of tumour called a teratoma, which contains a variety of differentiated tissue types.

Mouse embryonic stem cells are widely used to create genetically modified mice. This is done by introducing new genes into embryonic stem cells in tissue culture, selecting the particular genetic variant that is desired, and then inserting the genetically modified cells into mouse embryos. The resulting chimeric mice are composed partly of host cells and partly of the donor embryonic stem cells. As long as some of the chimeric mice have germ cells (sperm or eggs) that have been derived from the embryonic stem cells, it is possible to breed a line of mice that have the same genetic constitution as the embryonic stem cells and therefore incorporate the genetic modification that was made in vitro. This method has been used to produce thousands of new genetic lines of mice. In many such genetic lines, individual genes have been ablated in order to study their biological function; in others, genes have been introduced that have the same mutations that are found in various human genetic diseases. These mouse models for human disease are used in research to investigate both the pathology of the disease and new methods for therapy.

Extensive experience with mouse embryonic stem cells made it possible for scientists to grow human embryonic stem cells from early human embryos, and the first human stem cell line was created in 1998. Human embryonic stem cells are in many respects similar to mouse embryonic stem cells, but they do not require LIF for their maintenance. The human embryonic stem cells form a wide variety of differentiated tissues in vitro, and they form teratomas when grafted into immunosuppressed mice. It is not known whether the cells can colonize all the tissues of a human embryo, but it is presumed from their other properties that they are indeed pluripotent cells, and they therefore are regarded as a possible source of differentiated cells for cell therapythe replacement of a patients defective cell type with healthy cells. Large quantities of cells, such as dopamine-secreting neurons for the treatment of Parkinson disease and insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells for the treatment of diabetes, could be produced from embryonic stem cells for cell transplantation. Cells for this purpose have previously been obtainable only from sources in very limited supply, such as the pancreatic beta cells obtained from the cadavers of human organ donors.

The use of human embryonic stem cells evokes ethical concerns, because the blastocyst-stage embryos are destroyed in the process of obtaining the stem cells. The embryos from which stem cells have been obtained are produced through in vitro fertilization, and people who consider preimplantation human embryos to be human beings generally believe that such work is morally wrong. Others accept it because they regard the blastocysts to be simply balls of cells, and human cells used in laboratories have not previously been accorded any special moral or legal status. Moreover, it is known that none of the cells of the inner cell mass are exclusively destined to become part of the embryo itselfall of the cells contribute some or all of their cell offspring to the placenta, which also has not been accorded any special legal status. The divergence of views on this issue is illustrated by the fact that the use of human embryonic stem cells is allowed in some countries and prohibited in others.

In 2009 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first clinical trial designed to test a human embryonic stem cell-based therapy, but the trial was halted in late 2011 because of a lack of funding and a change in lead American biotech company Gerons business directives. The therapy to be tested was known as GRNOPC1, which consisted of progenitor cells (partially differentiated cells) that, once inside the body, matured into neural cells known as oligodendrocytes. The oligodendrocyte progenitors of GRNOPC1 were derived from human embryonic stem cells. The therapy was designed for the restoration of nerve function in persons suffering from acute spinal cord injury.

Embryonic germ (EG) cells, derived from primordial germ cells found in the gonadal ridge of a late embryo, have many of the properties of embryonic stem cells. The primordial germ cells in an embryo develop into stem cells that in an adult generate the reproductive gametes (sperm or eggs). In mice and humans it is possible to grow embryonic germ cells in tissue culture with the appropriate growth factorsnamely, LIF and another cytokine called fibroblast growth factor.

Some tissues in the adult body, such as the epidermis of the skin, the lining of the small intestine, and bone marrow, undergo continuous cellular turnover. They contain stem cells, which persist indefinitely, and a much larger number of transit amplifying cells, which arise from the stem cells and divide a finite number of times until they become differentiated. The stem cells exist in niches formed by other cells, which secrete substances that keep the stem cells alive and active. Some types of tissue, such as liver tissue, show minimal cell division or undergo cell division only when injured. In such tissues there is probably no special stem-cell population, and any cell can participate in tissue regeneration when required.

The epidermis of the skin contains layers of cells called keratinocytes. Only the basal layer, next to the dermis, contains cells that divide. A number of these cells are stem cells, but the majority are transit amplifying cells. The keratinocytes slowly move outward through the epidermis as they mature, and they eventually die and are sloughed off at the surface of the skin. The epithelium of the small intestine forms projections called villi, which are interspersed with small pits called crypts. The dividing cells are located in the crypts, with the stem cells lying near the base of each crypt. Cells are continuously produced in the crypts, migrate onto the villi, and are eventually shed into the lumen of the intestine. As they migrate, they differentiate into the cell types characteristic of the intestinal epithelium.

Bone marrow contains cells called hematopoietic stem cells, which generate all the cell types of the blood and the immune system. Hematopoietic stem cells are also found in small numbers in peripheral blood and in larger numbers in umbilical cord blood. In bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells are anchored to osteoblasts of the trabecular bone and to blood vessels. They generate progeny that can become lymphocytes, granulocytes, red blood cells, and certain other cell types, depending on the balance of growth factors in their immediate environment.

Work with experimental animals has shown that transplants of hematopoietic stem cells can occasionally colonize other tissues, with the transplanted cells becoming neurons, muscle cells, or epithelia. The degree to which transplanted hematopoietic stem cells are able to colonize other tissues is exceedingly small. Despite this, the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplants is being explored for conditions such as heart disease or autoimmune disorders. It is an especially attractive option for those opposed to the use of embryonic stem cells.

Bone marrow transplants (also known as bone marrow grafts) represent a type of stem cell therapy that is in common use. They are used to allow cancer patients to survive otherwise lethal doses of radiation therapy or chemotherapy that destroy the stem cells in bone marrow. For this procedure, the patients own marrow is harvested before the cancer treatment and is then reinfused into the body after treatment. The hematopoietic stem cells of the transplant colonize the damaged marrow and eventually repopulate the blood and the immune system with functional cells. Bone marrow transplants are also often carried out between individuals (allograft). In this case the grafted marrow has some beneficial antitumour effect. Risks associated with bone marrow allografts include rejection of the graft by the patients immune system and reaction of immune cells of the graft against the patients tissues (graft-versus-host disease).

Bone marrow is a source for mesenchymal stem cells (sometimes called marrow stromal cells, or MSCs), which are precursors to non-hematopoietic stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into several different types of cells, including cells that form bone, muscle, and connective tissue. In cell cultures, bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells demonstrate pluripotency when exposed to substances that influence cell differentiation. Harnessing these pluripotent properties has become highly valuable in the generation of transplantable tissues and organs. In 2008 scientists used mesenchymal stem cells to bioengineer a section of trachea that was transplanted into a woman whose upper airway had been severely damaged by tuberculosis. The stem cells were derived from the womans bone marrow, cultured in a laboratory, and used for tissue engineering. In the engineering process, a donor trachea was stripped of its interior and exterior cell linings, leaving behind a trachea scaffold of connective tissue. The stem cells derived from the recipient were then used to recolonize the interior of the scaffold, and normal epithelial cells, also isolated from the recipient, were used to recolonize the exterior of the trachea. The use of the recipients own cells to populate the trachea scaffold prevented immune rejection and eliminated the need for immunosuppression therapy. The transplant, which was successful, was the first of its kind.

Research has shown that there are also stem cells in the brain. In mammals very few new neurons are formed after birth, but some neurons in the olfactory bulbs and in the hippocampus are continually being formed. These neurons arise from neural stem cells, which can be cultured in vitro in the form of neurospheressmall cell clusters that contain stem cells and some of their progeny. This type of stem cell is being studied for use in cell therapy to treat Parkinson disease and other forms of neurodegeneration or traumatic damage to the central nervous system.

Following experiments in animals, including those used to create Dolly the sheep, there has been much discussion about the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to create pluripotent human cells. In SCNT the nucleus of a somatic cell (a fully differentiated cell, excluding germ cells), which contains the majority of the cells DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), is removed and transferred into an unfertilized egg cell that has had its own nuclear DNA removed. The egg cell is grown in culture until it reaches the blastocyst stage. The inner cell mass is then removed from the egg, and the cells are grown in culture to form an embryonic stem cell line (generations of cells originating from the same group of parent cells). These cells can then be stimulated to differentiate into various types of cells needed for transplantation. Since these cells would be genetically identical to the original donor, they could be used to treat the donor with no problems of immune rejection. Scientists generated human embryonic stem cells successfully from SCNT human embryos for the first time in 2013.

While promising, the generation and use of SCNT-derived embryonic stem cells is controversial for several reasons. One is that SCNT can require more than a dozen eggs before one egg successfully produces embryonic stem cells. Human eggs are in short supply, and there are many legal and ethical problems associated with egg donation. There are also unknown risks involved with transplanting SCNT-derived stem cells into humans, because the mechanism by which the unfertilized egg is able to reprogram the nuclear DNA of a differentiated cell is not entirely understood. In addition, SCNT is commonly used to produce clones of animals (such as Dolly). Although the cloning of humans is currently illegal throughout the world, the egg cell that contains nuclear DNA from an adult cell could in theory be implanted into a womans uterus and come to term as an actual cloned human. Thus, there exists strong opposition among some groups to the use of SCNT to generate human embryonic stem cells.

Due to the ethical and moral issues surrounding the use of embryonic stem cells, scientists have searched for ways to reprogram adult somatic cells. Studies of cell fusion, in which differentiated adult somatic cells grown in culture with embryonic stem cells fuse with the stem cells and acquire embryonic stem-cell-like properties, led to the idea that specific genes could reprogram differentiated adult cells. An advantage of cell fusion is that it relies on existing embryonic stem cells instead of eggs. However, fused cells stimulate an immune response when transplanted into humans, which leads to transplant rejection. As a result, research has become increasingly focused on the genes and proteins capable of reprogramming adult cells to a pluripotent state. In order to make adult cells pluripotent without fusing them to embryonic stem cells, regulatory genes that induce pluripotency must be introduced into the nuclei of adult cells. To do this, adult cells are grown in cell culture, and specific combinations of regulatory genes are inserted into retroviruses (viruses that convert RNA [ribonucleic acid] into DNA), which are then introduced to the culture medium. The retroviruses transport the RNA of the regulatory genes into the nuclei of the adult cells, where the genes are then incorporated into the DNA of the cells. About 1 out of every 10,000 cells acquires embryonic stem cell properties. Although the mechanism is still uncertain, it is clear that some of the genes confer embryonic stem cell properties by means of the regulation of numerous other genes. Adult cells that become reprogrammed in this way are known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS).

Similar to embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells can be stimulated to differentiate into select types of cells that could in principle be used for disease-specific treatments. In addition, the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from the adult cells of patients affected by genetic diseases can be used to model the diseases in the laboratory. For example, in 2008 researchers isolated skin cells from a child with an inherited neurological disease called spinal muscular atrophy and then reprogrammed these cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. The reprogrammed cells retained the disease genotype of the adult cells and were stimulated to differentiate into motor neurons that displayed functional insufficiencies associated with spinal muscular atrophy. By recapitulating the disease in the laboratory, scientists were able to study closely the cellular changes that occurred as the disease progressed. Such models promise not only to improve scientists understanding of genetic diseases but also to facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies tailored to each type of genetic disease.

In 2009 scientists successfully generated retinal cells of the human eye by reprogramming adult skin cells. This advance enabled detailed investigation of the embryonic development of retinal cells and opened avenues for the generation of novel therapies for eye diseases. The production of retinal cells from reprogrammed skin cells may be particularly useful in the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa, which is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the retina, eventually leading to night blindness and other complications of vision. Although retinal cells also have been produced from human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotency represents a less controversial approach. Scientists have also explored the possibility of combining induced pluripotent stem cell technology with gene therapy, which would be of value particularly for patients with genetic disease who would benefit from autologous transplantation.

Researchers have also been able to generate cardiac stem cells for the treatment of certain forms of heart disease through the process of dedifferentiation, in which mature heart cells are stimulated to revert to stem cells. The first attempt at the transplantation of autologous cardiac stem cells was performed in 2009, when doctors isolated heart tissue from a patient, cultured the tissue in a laboratory, stimulated cell dedifferentiation, and then reinfused the cardiac stem cells directly into the patients heart. A similar study involving 14 patients who underwent cardiac bypass surgery followed by cardiac stem cell transplantation was reported in 2011. More than three months after stem cell transplantation, the patients experienced a slight but detectable improvement in heart function.

Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells and dedifferentiated cells are highly valuable in terms of their therapeutic applications because they are unlikely to be rejected by the immune system. However, before induced pluripotent stem cells can be used to treat human diseases, researchers must find a way to introduce the active reprogramming genes without using retroviruses, which can cause diseases such as leukemia in humans. A possible alternative to the use of retroviruses to transport regulatory genes into the nuclei of adult cells is the use of plasmids, which are less tumourigenic than viruses.

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stem cell | Definition, Types, Uses, Research, & Facts …

Fact Sheet: Adult Stem Cell Research and Transplants …

Adult Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Sep 16 2018

To view as PDF, see: CLI Fact Sheet Adult Stem Cell Research and Transplants

Last updated: November 21, 2017

Adult stem cell transplants are already widely used to the benefit of over a million people.

Adult stem cell transplants are being used to treat dozens of conditions in patients.

[i] Gratwohl A et al., One million haematopoietic stem-cell transplants: a retrospective observational study, Lancet Haematology 2, e91-e100, March 2015. doi:10.1016/S2352-3026(15)00028-9.

[ii]Niederwieser D, Baldomero H, Szer J, Gratwohl M, et al., Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey. Bone Marrow Transplant. 51(6):778-785, 2016. doi:10.1038/bmt.2016.18.

[iii] General FAQ. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. http://bloodcell.transplant.hrsa.gov/about/general_faqs/index.html, accessed August 3, 2016.

[iv] Ballen KK, Gluckman E, Broxmeyer HE, Umbilical cord blood transplantation: the first 25 years and beyond, Blood. 122:491-498, 2013. doi:10.1182/blood-2013-02-453175.

[v] Gratwohl A et al., One million haematopoietic stem-cell transplants: a retrospective observational study, Lancet Haematology 2, e91-e100, March 2015. doi:10.1016/S2352-3026(15)00028-9.

[vi] Search term: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=adult+stem+cell+transplants&type=Intr, accessed August 2, 2016.

[vii] Patel AN et al., Ixmyelocel-T for patients with ischaemic heart failure: a prospective randomised double-blind trial. Lancet 387:2412-2421, 2016. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30137-4.

[viii] Steinberg GK, Kondziolka D, Wechsker LR et al., Clinical Outcomes of Transplanted Modified Bone MarrowDerived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Stroke: A Phase 1/2a Study. Stroke. 447: 1817-1824, 2016. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.012995; Cox CS, Hetz RA, Liao GP, et al., Treatment of Severe Adult Traumatic Brain Injury Using Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells. Stem Cells. 35:1065-1079, 2017. doi: 10.1002/stem.2538; Hess, DC et al., Safety and Efficacy of Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells in Acute Ischaemic Stroke (MASTERS): A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Trials. Lancet. 16 (5):360-368, 2017. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30046-7; Savitz SI, Misra V, Kasam M, et al., Intravenous Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Ischemic Stroke. Annals of Neurology. 70:59-69, 2011. doi: 10.1002/ana.22458.

[ix]See Bernaudin F et al., Long-term results of related myeloablative stem-cell transplantation to cure sickle cell disease. Blood. 110:2749-2756,2007. doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-03-079665. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy for sickle cell disease.

[x] Lima C, Pratas-Vital J, Escada P, Hasse-Ferreira A, Capucho C, Peduzzi JD. Olfactory Mucosal Autografts and Rehabilitation for Chronic Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair January 24:10-22, 2010. doi: 10.1177/1545968309347685; Lima C, Pratas-Vital J, Escada P, Hasse-Ferreira A, Capucho C, Peduzzi JD. Olfactory Mucosa Autografts in Human Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Clinical Study. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 29(3):191-203, 2006.

[xi] Burt RK et al., Association of Nonmyeloablative Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation With Neurological Disability in Patients With Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis, JAMA. 313(3):275-284, 2015. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.17986.

[xii] Cai J et al., Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cell With Autologous Bone Marrow Cell Transplantation in Established Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Open-Label Clinical Study to Assess Safety and Impact on Insulin Secretion, Diabetes Care. 39, 149, 2016. doi: 10.2337/dc15-0171; Gaipov, A et al., Autologous Bone-Marrow-Derived Stem Cells Transplantation in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 31 (suppl 1):i217, 2016. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfw169.03; DAddio F et al., Autologous Nonmyeloablative Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: A Multicenter Analysis, Diabetes.63(9),3041-3046, 2014.doi:10.2337/db14-0295; Zhao et al., Reversal of type 1 diabetes via islet cell regeneration following immune modulation by cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells. BMC Medicine. 10(3), 2012. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-3; Voltarelli JC and Couri CEB, Stem cell transplantation for type 1 diabetes mellitus, Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 1, 4, 2009. doi: 10.1186/1758-5996-1-4; Couri CEB et al., C-Peptide Levels and Insulin Independence Following Autologous Nonmyeloablative Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, JAMA 301, 1573-1579, 2009; Voltarelli JC et al., Autologous Nonmyeloablative Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, JAMA. 297, 1568-1576, 2007.

[xiii] Weiss JN, Levy S, Malkin A. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a preliminary report. Neural Regen Res 2015; 10:982-8; Weiss JN, Levy S, Benes SC. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a case report of improvement in relapsing auto-immune optic neuropathy. Neural Regen Res 2015; 10:1507-15.

[xiv] Burt RK et al., Nonmyeloablative Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, JAMA 295, 527-535, 2006, doi: 10.1001/jama.295.5.527; Illei GG et al., Current state and future directions of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in systemic lupus erythematosus, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 70, 2071-2074, 2011 doi: 10.1136/ard.2010.148049; Szodoray P et al., Immunological reconstitution after autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory systemic autoimmune diseases, Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 41, 110-115, 2012, doi: 10.3109/03009742.2011.606788; Alchi B et al., Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for systemic lupus erythematosus: data from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry, Lupus 22, 245-253, 2013, doi: 10.1177/0961203312470729; Alexander T et al., Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in systemic lupus erythematosus, Z. Rheumatologie 75, 770-779, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s00393-016-0190-3

[xv]Search term selection: multiple myeloma/plasma cell disease (PCD) http://bloodcell.transplant.hrsa.gov/RESEARCH/Transplant_Data/US_Tx_Data/Data_by_Disease/national.aspx, accessed August 3, 2016.

[xvi] Press release: The Lancet Hematology: Experts warn of stem cell underuse as transplants reach 1 million worldwide (Feb 26, 2016) http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-02/tl-tlh022515.php, accessed August 2, 2016.

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Fact Sheet: Adult Stem Cell Research and Transplants …

Stem Cell Therapy and Stem Cell Injection Provider Finder …

Adult Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Aug 19 2018

Stem cell therapy can be described as a means or process by which stem cells are used for the prevention, treatment or the cure of diseases. Stem cells are a special kind of cells that have features other types of cells dont have. As an illustration, stem cells are capable of proliferation. This implies that they can develop into any type of cell, and grow to start performing the functions of the tissue. In addition, they can regenerate. This means they can multiply themselves. This is most important when a new tissue has to be formed. Also, they modulate immune reactions. This has made them useful for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, especially those that affect the musculoskeletal system such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and so on. Stem cells can be derrived from different sources. They can be extracted from the body, and in some specific parts of the body. This includes the blood, bone marrow, umbilical cord in newborns, adipose tissue, and from embryos. There are 2 main types of stem cell transplant. These are autologous stem cell transplant, and allogeneic stem cell transplant. The autologous stem cell transplant means that stem cells are extracted from the patient, processed, and then transplanted back to the patient, for therapeutic purposes. On the other hand, allogeneic stem cell transplant means the transplant of stem cells or from another individual, known as the donor, to another person, or recipient. Some treatments must be given to the receiver to prevent any cases of rejections, and other complications. The autologous is usually the most preferred type of transplant because of its almost zero side effects. Below are some of the stem cell treatments. Our goal is to provide education, research and an opportunity to connect with Stem Cell Doctors, as well as provide stem cell reviews

Adipose Stem Cell TreatmentsAdipose stem cell treatment is one of the most commonly used. This is because large quantities of stem cells can be derrived from them. According to statistics, the number of stem cells in adipose tissue are usually hundreds of times higher than what can be obtained from other sources, such as the bone marrow stem cells. Adipose stem cells have taken the center stage in the world of stem cell therapy. Apart from the ease that comes with the harvesting of these cells from the adipose tissue, they also have some special features, that separates them from other types of cells. Adipose stem cells are capable of regulating and modulating the immune system. This includes immune suppression, which is important for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In addition, adipose stem cells can differentiate to form other types of cells. Some of them include the bone forming cells, cardiomyocytes, and cells of the nervous system.

This process can be divided into four parts. These are

Stem cell joint injection is fast becoming the new treatment of joint diseases. Stem cells derived from bone marrow, adipose and mesenchymal stem cells are the most commonly used. The stem cells are injected into the joints, and they proceed to repair and replace the damaged tissues. The cells also modulate the inflammatory process going on. Overall, stem cell joint injections significantly reduce the recovery time of patients and also eliminates pain and risks associated with surgery. Examples of diseases where this treatment is used include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and so on. Researchers and physicians have rated this procedure to be the future of joint therapy.

Losing a tooth as a kid isnt news because youd eventually grow them back, but losing one as an adult isnt a pleasant experience. Youd have to go through the pains of getting a replacement from your dentist. Apart from the cost of these procedures, the pain and number of days youd have to stay at home nursing the pain is also a problem. Nevertheless, there are great teeth replacement therapies available for all kinds of dental problems. Although there are already good dental treatment methods, stem cell therapy might soon become the future of dental procedures. Currently, a lot of research is being done on how stem cells can be used to develop teeth naturally, especially in patients with dental problems. The aim of the project is to develop a method whereby peoples stem cells are used in regenerating their own teeth and within the shortest time possible. Some of the benefits of the stem cell tooth would be:

The quality of life of those that underwent serious procedures, especially those that had an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation done was studied. It was discovered that this set of people had to cope with some psychological problems, even years after the procedure. In addition, allogeneic stem cell transplantation often comes with some side effects. However, this a small price to pay, considering that the adverse effects are not usually life-threatening. Also theses types of procedures are used for severe disorders or even terminal diseases. On the other hand, autologous stem cell transplantation bears the minimum to no side effects. Patients do have a great quality of life, both in the short term and in the long term.

This is one of the many uses of stem cells. The stem cell gun is a device that is used in treating people with wounds or burns. This is done by simply triggering it, and it sprays stem cells on the affected part. This kind of treatment is crucial for victims of a severe burn. Usually, people affected by severe burns would have to endure excruciating pain. The process of recovery is usually long, which might vary from weeks to months, depending on the severity of the burn. Even after treatment, most patients are left with scars forever. However, the stem cell gun eliminates these problems, the skin can be grown back in just a matter of days. The new skin also grows evenly and blends perfectly with the other part of the body. This process is also without the scars that are usually associated with the traditional burns therapy. The stem cell gun is without any side effects.

There is one company that focuses on the production of stem cell supplements. These stem cells are usually natural ingredients that increase the development of stem cells, and also keeps them healthy. The purpose of the stem cell supplements is to help reduce the aging process and make people look younger. These supplements work by replacing the dead or repairing the damaged tissues of the body. There have been a lot of testimonials to the efficacy of these supplements.

It is the goal of researchers to make stem cell therapy a good alternative for the millions of patients suffering from cardiac-related diseases. According to some experiments carried out in animals, stem cells were injected into the ones affected by heart diseases. A large percentage of them showed great improvement, even within just a few weeks. However, when the trial was carried out in humans, some stem cells went ahead to develop into heart muscles, but overall, the heart function was generally improved. The reason for the improvement has been attributed to the formation of new vessels in the heart. The topic that has generated a lot of arguments have been what type of cells should be used in the treatment of heart disorders. Stem cells extracted from the bone marrow, embryo have been in use, although bone marrow stem cells are the most commonly used. Stem cells extracted from bone marrow can differentiate into cardiac cells, while studies have shown that other stem cells cannot do the same. Even though the stem cell therapy has a lot of potential in the future, more research and studies have to be done to make that a reality.

The use of stem cells for the treatment of hair loss has increased significantly. This can be attributed to the discovery of stem cells in bone marrow, adipose cells, umbilical cord, and so on. Stem cells are extracted from the patient, through any of the sources listed above. Adipose tissue stem cells are usually the most convenient in this scenario, as they do not require any special extraction procedure. Adipose tissue is harvested from the abdominal area. The stem cells are then isolated from the other cells through a process known as centrifugation. The stem cells are then activated and are now ready for use. The isolated stem cells are then introduced into the scalp, under local anesthesia. The entire process takes about three hours. Patients are free to go home, after the procedure. Patients would begin to see improvements in just a few months, however, this depends largely on the patients ability to heal. Every patient has a different outcome.

Human umbilical stem cells are cells extracted from the umbilical cord of a healthy baby, shortly after birth. Umbilical cord tissue is abundant in stem cells, and the stem cells can differentiate into many types of cells such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They are also capable of differentiating into non-blood cells such as muscle cells, cartilage cells and so on. These cells are usually preferred because its’ extraction is minimally non invasive. It also is nearly painless. It also has zero risks of rejecting, as it does not require any form of matching or typing.Human umbilical stem cell injections are used for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. A trial was done on twenty-five patients that had late-stage spinal cord injuries. They were placed on human umbilical stem cell therapy, while another set of 25 patients were simultaneously placed on the usual rehabilitation therapy. The two groups were studied for the next twelve months. The results of the trial showed that those people placed on stem cell therapy by administering the human umbilical cell tissue injections had a significant recovery, as compared to the other group that underwent the traditional rehabilitation therapy. It was concluded that human umbilical tissue injections applied close to the injured part gives the best outcomes.

Stem cell therapy has been used for the treatment of many types diseases. This ranges from terminal illnesses such as cancer, joint diseases such as arthritis, and also autoimmune diseases. Stem cell therapy is often a better alternative to most traditional therapy today. This is because stem cell procedure is minimally invasive when compared to chemotherapy and so on. It harnesses the bodys own ability to heal. The stem cells are extracted from other parts of the body and then transplanted to other parts of the body, where they would repair and maintain the tissues. They also perform the function of modulating the immune system, which makes them important for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Below are some of the diseases that stem cell therapies have been used successfully:

A stem cell bank can be described as a facility where stem cells are stored for future purposes. These are mostly amniotic stem cells, which are derived from the amnion fluid. Umbilical cord stem cells are also equally important as it is rich in stem cells and can be used for the treatment of many diseases. Examples of these diseases include cancer, blood disorders, autoimmune diseases, musculoskeletal diseases and so on. According to statistics, umbilical stem cells can be used for the treatment of over eighty diseases. Storing your stem cells should be seen as an investment in your health for future sake. Parents do have the option of either throwing away their babys umbilical cord or donating it to stem cell banks.

The adipose tissue contains a lot of stem cells, that has the ability to transform into other cells such as muscle, cartilage, neural cells. They are also important for the treatment of some cardiovascular diseases. This is what makes it important for people to want to store their stem cells. The future health benefit is huge. The only way adults can store their stem cells in sufficient amounts is to extract the stem cells from their fat tissues. This process is usually painless and fast. Although, the extraction might have to be done between 3 to 5 times before the needed quantity is gotten. People that missed the opportunity to store their stem cells, using their cord cells, can now store it using their own adipose tissues. This can be used at any point in time.

Side effects often accompany every kind of treatment. However, this depends largely on the individual. While patients might present with side effects, some other people wouldnt. Whether a patient will present with adverse effects, depends on the following factors;

Some of the common side effects of stem cell transplant are;

Stem cell treatment has been largely successful so far, however, more studies and research needs to be done. Stem cell therapy could be the future.

Stem cells are unique cells that have some special features such as self-regeneration, tissue repair, and modulation of the immune system. These are the features that are employed in the treatment of diseases.

Our doctors are certified by iSTEMCELL but operate as part of a medical group or as independent business owners and as such are free to charge what the feel to be the right fit for their practice and clients. We have seen Stem Cell Treatment costs range from $3500 upwards of $30,000 depending on the condition and protocol required for intended results. Find the Best Stem Cell Doctor Near me If you are interested in saving money, try our STEM CELL COUPON!

Travel Medcations are becoming very popular around the globe for several reasons but not for what one might think. It is not about traveling to Mexico to save money, but to get procedures or protocols that are not yet available in your home country. Many procedures are started in your home country, then the tissue is set to the tissue lab where it is then grown in a process to maximize live cells, then sent to a hospital in Mexico designed to treat or provide different therapies for different conditions. If you’re ready to take a medical vacation call 972-800-6670 for our”WHITE GLOVE” service.

Chen, C. and Hou, J. (2016). Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy in kidney transplantation. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 7(1).

Donnelly, A., Johar, S., OBrien, T. and Tuan, R. (2010). Welcome to Stem Cell Research & Therapy. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 1(1), p.1.

Groothuis, S. (2015). Changes in Stem Cell Research. Stem Cell Research, 14(1), p.130.

Rao, M. (2012). Stem cells and regenerative medicine. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 3(4), p.27.

Vunjak-Novakovic, G. (2013). Physical influences on stem cells. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 4(6), p.153.

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Understanding Adult and Embryonic Stem Cell Research

Adult Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Aug 13 2018

Stem cell research is a complicated and controversial issue. Before you can be for it or against it, you must fully understand the terminology, the potential, and consequences of stem cell research. There are implicit details which shape the perception of stem cell research. It’s been made a:

In mid-May 2005 President Bush said, “I am a strong supporter of stem cell research, but I’ve made it very clear to Congress that the use of federal taxpayer money to promote science that destroys life in order to save life, I am against this.”

What are stem cells (SC)?

SC differ from other kinds of cells in the body. Regardless of their source, they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. Although they are unspecialized, they can give rise to specialized types of cells (i.e. muscle, red blood, brain).

What are embryonic stem cells (ESC)?

ESC are derived from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro, in an in vitro fertilization clinic. They are donated for research purposes with informed consent of the donors. They are not derived from eggs fertilized in a woman’s body – a common misconception.

What are adult stem cells (ASC)?

ASC are undifferentiated, found among differentiated cell types in a tissue or organ. ASC can renew themselves, and can differentiate to yield the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ. Their primary role in a living organism is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.

How are ESC and ASC similar and how are they different?

They differ in the number and type of differentiated cells they can become. ESC can become all types found in the body. ASC are said to be less versatile, generally limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue of origin. However, other evidence suggests that an ASC from one adult tissue may be able to generate the differentiated types of cells of another adult tissue.

Continuing research on human embryonic stem cells could identify how undifferentiated stem cells become differentiated. It is known that turning genes on and off is central to the process. Some of the most serious medical conditions are caused by abnormal cell division and differentiation.

Better understanding of how these processes are controlled at the genetic and molecular level may lead to:

Simply put, those who support human embryonic stem cell research believe it could lead to possible cures for many diseases, including:

Human stem cells could also be used to test new drugs. According to the NIH (National Institutes of Health, “to screen drugs effectively, the conditions must be identical when comparing different drugs. Therefore, scientists will have to be able to precisely control the differentiation of stem cells into the specific cell type on which drugs will be tested. Current knowledge of the signals controlling differentiation fall well short of being able to mimic these conditions precisely to consistently have identical differentiated cells for each drug being tested.”

The need for transplantable tissues and organs far outweighs the available supply. Stem cells, directed to differentiate into specific cell types, could offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat many diseases.

One of the main objections to embryonic stem cell research has to do with the belief that using embryos tampers with life. People who stand strong behind this ideology believe that even for the purpose of medical research and the possibility of saving lives, it is wrong. For people who oppose embryonic stem cell research it is a matter of ethics and morals which outweigh the scientific potential.

There is no guarantee that forging ahead with embryonic stem cell research will produce the desired results. That, too, is a problem for some who oppose it. The utilization of embryonic stem cells, is at this point theoretical, unlike adult stem cells which have shown therapeutic results.

Understanding this issue before formulating an opinion is imperative. Stem cell research is a complicated issue, without doubt. Further investigation regarding the scientific and ethical viewpoints can only result in being more informed and knowledgeable, and the assurance that you are standing on the side of the issue which most strongly aligns with your beliefs.

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Understanding Adult and Embryonic Stem Cell Research

Types of Adult Stem Cells Stem Cell Institute StemCell …

Adult Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Jul 29 2018

Stem cells reside in adult bone marrow and fat, as well as other tissues and organs of the body including the umbilical cord. These cells have a natural ability to repair damaged tissue, however in people with degenerative diseases they are not released quickly enough to fully repair damaged tissue. In the case of fat stem cells they may not be released at all. The process of actively extracting, concentrating and administering these stem cells has been shown in clinical trials to have beneficial effects in degenerative conditions. Few patients have access to clinical trials. We offer patients and their doctors access to these therapies now. Stem cell treatments are not covered by insurance.

Adult stem cells can be extracted from most tissues in the body, including the bone marrow, fat, and peripheral blood. They can also be isolated from human umbilical cords and placental tissue. Once the cells have been harvested, they are sent to the lab where they are purified and assessed for quality before being reintroduced back in the patient. Common types of adult stem cells are mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells.

Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells reside in the *umbilical cords of newborn babies. HUCT-MSC stem cells, like all post-natal cells, are adult stem cells.

The Stem Cell Institute utilizes cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells that are separated from the umbilical cord tissue. For certain indications, these cells are expanded into greater numbers at Medistem laboratory in Panama under very strict, internationally recognized guidelines.

Among many other things, mesenchymal stem cells from the umbilical cord tissue are known to help reduce inflammation, modulate the immune system and secrete factors that may help various tissues throughout the body to regenerate.

The bodys immune system is unable to recognize HUCT mesenchymal stem cells as foreign and therefore they are not rejected. Weve treated hundreds of patients with umbilical cord stem cells and there has never been a single instance rejection (graft vs. host disease). HUCT MSCs also proliferate/differentiate more efficiently than older cells, such as those found in the bone marrow and therefore, they are considered to be more potent.

Through retrospective analysis of our cases, weve identified proteins and genes that allow us to screen several hundred umbilical cord donations to find the ones that we know are most effective. We only use these cells and we call them golden cells.

We go through a very high throughput screening process to find cells that we know have the best anti-inflammatory activity, the best immune modulating capacity, and the best ability to stimulate regeneration.

Human umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that were isolated and grown in our laboratory in Panama to create master cell banks are currently being used in the United States.

These cells serve as the starting material for cellular products used in MSC clinical trials for two Duchennes muscular dystrophy patients under US FDAs designation of Investigational New Drug (IND) for single patient compassionate use. (IND 16026 DMD Single Patient)

The bone marrow stem cell is the most studied of the stem cells, since it was first discovered to in the 1960s. Originally used in bone marrow transplant for leukemias and hematopoietic diseases, numerous studies have now expanded experimental use of these cells for conditions such as peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, heart failure, and other degenerative disorders.

At Stem Cell Institute, we use purified autologous (patients own) mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow in our spinal cord injury protocol along with umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells.

Fat stem cells are essentially sequestered and are not available to the rest of the body for repair or immune modulation. Fat derived stem cells have been used for successful treatment of companion animals and horses with bone and joint injuries for the last 10 years with positive results.

Experimental studies suggest fat derived stem cells not only can develop into new tissues but also suppress pathological immune responses as seen in autoimmune diseases. In addition to orthopedic conditions, Stem Cell Institute pioneered treating patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and other autoimmune diseases using fat derived stem cells. However, we no longer use a patients own stem cells from fat because weve found that mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord tissue are superior.

Dr. Riordan published the first scientific article on treating humans (3 multiple sclerosis patients) with adipose-derived stem cells. We have treated many patients with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in Panama but we no longer do so because we have found that umbilical cord-derived MSCs modulate the immune system and control inflammation better. HUCT MSCs also proliferate much more efficiently.

Articles Authored by our Doctors and Scientists about Fat Derived Stem Cells:

*All donated cords are the by-products of normal, healthy births. Each cord is carefully screened for sterility and infectious diseases under International Blood Bank standards.

Visit link: Types of Adult Stem Cells Stem Cell Institute

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Difference between Adult and Embryonic Stem Cells

Adult Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Jul 29 2018

Key Difference: The adult stem cells are derived from adult tissue, and have the ability to regenerate into all the cell types of the organ from which they originate. Embryonic Stem Cells, on the other hand, are stem cells that are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst. Blastocyst is an early-stage of the embryo that it reaches approximately 4-5 days after fertilization.

A stem cell is a reserve cell that each creature has in its body. The stem cell has the ability to grow into any cell that is required by the body and to multiply, so that it can replace any and all dead or damaged adult cells.

Many systems in our body have a supply of stem cells that helps it to heal and replace any dead or damage parts. Some of these parts include the skin system, liver system, etc., which is why it is easier for the body to heal these parts, as it can just replace the damaged parts. However, there are other systems in our body, such as the heart, spinal cord, brain and pancreas, which so not have a supply of stem cells. Researchers are currently working to develop stem cells that may help us to heal and/or replace these parts.

Stem Cells are greatly beneficial as they have the ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely. There are four main types of stem cells as categorized by the researchers working with them. These are adult stem cells, fetal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and more recently, induced stem cells.

Adult Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells, which means that they have not become specialized stem cells with a particular function. These cells have the ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely. They also have to ability to generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate.

The adult stem cells are derived from adult tissue, and depending on the tissues they are derived from, they have the ability to regenerate into all the cell types of the organ from which they originate.

Embryonic Stem Cells, on the other hand, are stem cells that are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst. Blastocyst is an early-stage of the embryo that it reaches approximately 4-5 days after fertilization. At this stage, the embryo has consist of 50150 cells. Here the embryos are generated by IVF (in vitro fertility) clinics, so that the researchers can study the stem cells and their implications.

The Embryonic Stem Cells are also known as pluripotent stem cells as they have the ability to differentiate into any cell type, which means that they have a possibility of infinite applications within the human body. Like the adult stem cells, they also have the ability to regenerate indefinitely, as practically, they entire human body grows from single embryo.

However, embryonic stem cell research has been subject to much controversy, due to the fact the stem cells are taken from an embryo. Many claim that this is inhumane, and that embryos are life and should have the same rights. Many people also look down upon and criticize the fact that these embryos are generated by IVF, which some consider to be against nature.

Comparison between Adult and Embryonic Stem Cells:

Adult Stem Cells

Embryonic Stem Cells

Description

Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues.

Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are stem cells that are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage preimplantation embryo.

Also known as

Somatic stem cells, Multipotent stem cells

Pluripotent stem cells

Derived from

Adult Tissue

5 day old embryo

Features

Benefits

They have the potential to increase healing and for potentially regenerating an entire organ from a few cells.

Diseases that could potentially be treated by pluripotent stem cells include a number of blood and immune-system related genetic diseases, cancers, and disorders; juvenile diabetes; Parkinson’s; blindness and spinal cord injuries.

Controversy

The use of human adult stem cells in research and therapy is not considered to be controversial.

The use of human embryonic stem cells in research and therapy is controversial as they are derived from human 5 day old embryos generated by IVF (in vitro fertility) clinics designated for scientific research.

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Difference between Adult and Embryonic Stem Cells

Stem Cells, Characteristics, Properties, Different …

Adult Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Jul 29 2018

Classification of stem cells

The Stem Cells Transplant Institute uses adult autologous mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue.

Stem cells come from two main sources; embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Adult stem cells do not require the destruction of an embryo and their collection and use in research is not controversial. Adult stem cells are undifferentiated totipotent or multipotent cells, found throughout the body after embryonic development.

Stem cells are also classified based on where they are collected from;allogenicstem cells are collected from the same species,xenogeneicstem cells are collected from a different species, andautologousstem cells are collected from the intended recipient.

Stem cellscan be classified by the extent to which they can differentiate into differentcelltypes. These four mainclassificationsare totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, or unipotent. Mesenchymal stem cells, or MSCs, are multipotent stromal cellsthat can differentiate into a variety ofcelltypes, including: osteoblasts (bonecells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (musclecells) and adipocytes (fatcells).

The Stem Cells Transplant Institute uses adipose derived stem cells removed from either the patients abdomen or thigh and placed in a centrifuge machine that spins them very quickly, concentrating the stem cells and growth factors.

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Adult Stem Cell Research Leaving Embryos Behind – CBS News

Adult Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Jul 24 2018

A few months ago, Dr. Thomas Einhorn was treating a patient with a broken ankle that wouldn’t heal, even with multiple surgeries. So he sought help from the man’s own body.

Einhorn drew bone marrow from the man’s pelvic bone with a needle, condensed it to about four teaspoons of rich red liquid, and injected that into his ankle.

Four months later the ankle was healed. Einhorn, chairman of orthopedic surgery at Boston University Medical Center, credits “adult” stem cells in the marrow injection. He tried it because of published research from France.

Einhorn’s experience isn’t a rigorous study. But it’s an example of many innovative therapies doctors are studying with adult stem cells. Those are stem cells typically taken from bone marrow and blood – not embryos.

For all the emotional debate that began about a decade ago on allowing the use of embryonic stem cells, it’s adult stem cells that are in human testing today. An extensive review of stem cell projects and interviews with two dozen experts reveal a wide range of potential treatments.

Morley Safer reported for “60 Minutes” this summer on the rapidly increasing trend of “regenerative medicine,” where cells in the human body are manipulated into regrowing damaged tissues.

Researchers have created beating hearts, ears and bladders using stem cells. Biotech companies and the Pentagon have invested hundreds of millions of dollars in research that could profoundly change millions of lives.

“60 Minutes”: Growing Body Parts

Adult stem cells are being studied in people who suffer from multiple sclerosis, heart attacks and diabetes. Some early results suggest stem cells can help some patients avoid leg amputation. Recently, researchers reported that they restored vision to patients whose eyes were damaged by chemicals.

Apart from these efforts, transplants of adult stem cells have become a standard lifesaving therapy for perhaps hundreds of thousands of people with leukemia, lymphoma and other blood diseases.

“That’s really one of the great success stories of stem cell biology that gives us all hope,” says Dr. David Scadden of Harvard, who notes stem cells are also used to grow skin grafts.

“If we can recreate that success in other tissues, what can we possibly imagine for other people?”

That sort of promise has long been held out for embryonic stem cells, which were first isolated and grown in a lab dish in 1998. Controversy over their use surrounded the 2001 decision by former President George W. Bush to allow only restricted federal funding for studying them.

Proponents over the past decade have included former first lady Nancy Reagan and actors Michael J. Fox and the late Christopher Reeve. Opponents object that human embryos have to be destroyed to harvest the cells.

Embryonic cells may indeed be used someday to grow replacement tissue or therapeutic material for diseases like Parkinson’s or diabetes. Just on Friday, a biotech company said it was going ahead with an initial safety study in spinal cord injury patients. Another is planning an initial study in eye disease patients later this year.

But in the near term, embryonic stem cells are more likely to pay off as lab tools, for learning about the roots of disease and screening potential drugs.

Observers say they’re not surprised at the pace of progress.

As medical research goes, the roughly 10 years since the embryonic cells were discovered “is actually a very short amount of time,” said Amy Rick, immediate past president of the Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research. The group has pushed for embryonic stem cell research for about that long.

Hank Greely, a Stanford University law professor who works in bioethics and has followed stem cells since the 1990s, said: “Give it another five years and I’ll be surprised if we don’t have some substantial progress” beyond initial safety studies.

The Pro-Life Secretariat of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops continues to oppose embryonic work. Deirdre McQuade, an official there, said that compared to adult stem cell research, work on embryonic cells is proving “fruitless.”

Adult cells have been transplanted routinely for decades, first in bone marrow transplants and then in procedures that transfer just the cells. Doctors recover the cells from the marrow or bloodstream of a patient or a donor, and infuse them as part of the treatment for leukemia, lymphoma and other blood diseases. Tens of thousands of people are saved each year by such procedures, experts say.

Advice on Finding Legitimate Stem Cell Clinics

But it is harnessing these cells for other diseases that has encouraged many scientists lately.

In June, for example, researchers reported they had restored vision to people whose eyes were damaged from caustic chemicals. Stem cells from each patient’s healthy eye were grown and multiplied in the lab and transplanted into the damaged eye, where they grew into healthy corneal tissue.

A couple of months earlier, the Vatican announced it was funding adult stem cell research on the intestine at the University of Maryland. And on Friday, Italian doctors said they’d transplanted two windpipes injected with the recipients’ own stem cells.

But these developments only hint at what’s being explored in experiments across the United States.

Much of the work is early, and even as experts speak of its promise, they ask for patience and warn against clinics that aggressively market stem-cell cures without scientific backing.

Some of the new approaches, like the long-proven treatments, are based on the idea that stem cells can turn into other cells. Einhorn said the ankle-repair technique, for example, apparently works because of cells that turn into bone and blood vessels. But for other uses, scientists say they’re harnessing the apparent abilities of adult stem cells to stimulate tissue repair, or to suppress the immune system.

“That gives adult stem cells really a very interesting and potent quality that embryonic stem cells don’t have,” says Rocky Tuan of the University of Pittsburgh.

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Adult Stem Cell Research Leaving Embryos Behind – CBS News

Sources of Adult Stem Cells – Stem Cell Institute

Adult Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Jul 05 2018

*Unlike bone marrow and cord blood, Human umbilical cord tissue is a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue-derived cells are best suited for tissue regeneration due to the tissue repairing function of the mesenchymal stem cells. They are also well-suited for immune system modulation and reducing inflammation.

Bone marrow is a good source of CD34+ stem cells (but a poor source of mesenchymal stem cells) bone marrow-derived stem cells provide support for tissue regeneration via revascularization properties and their ability to support mesenchymal stem cells in the body.

Because we have three major adult stem cells sources at our disposal, including the ability to expand cells into larger numbers when indicated, we can select optimal stem cell combinations for each disease and, if necessary, each individual we treat.

Like bone marrow, cord blood is source of CD34+ stem cells (but a poor source of mesenchymal stem cells). These stem cells provide support for tissue regeneration via revascularization properties and their ability to support mesenchymal stem cells in the body.

Most protocols using cord blood require Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing to match the recipient and donor.

We do not use cord blood-derived stem cells at Stem Cell Institute.

Adipose tissue is a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and T-regulatory cells which modulate the immune system. Adipose-derived cells can be used for treating systemic autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. They also play a role in regenerating injured tissue.

Because we have found that the immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUCT-MSCs) are superior to those harvested from fat, we no longer employ fat-derived MSCs in our treatment protocols.

*All donated cords are the by-products of normal, healthy births. Each cord is carefully screened for sterility and infectious diseases under International Blood Bank standards.

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Sources of Adult Stem Cells – Stem Cell Institute

Adult Stem Cell Therapy 101, MSCTC

Adult Stem Cells | Posted by admin
Jul 05 2018

The initial concept of regenerative medicine dates all the way back to 330 BC, when Aristotle observed that a lizard could grow back the lost tip of its tail. Slowly over time, humans have grown to understand regenerative medicine, and how it may change the way we treat diseases. It’s been only relatively recently that adult (non-embryonic) stem cell therapy, a type of regenerative medicine, has gathered fast momentum. The below video illustrates key (not all) highlights in how stem cell therapy research has progressed over the last several decades.

Adult (non-embryonic) stem cells are unspecialized or undifferentiated cells,which means they have yet to develop into a specific cell type. Found in most adult tissues, adult stem cells have two primary properties:

Simply put, adult stem cells have the potential to grow into any of the body’s more than 200 cell types.

Adult stem cells have been found in most parts of the body, including brain, bone marrow, blood vessels, skin, teeth and heart. There are typically a small number of stem cells in each tissue. Due to their small number and rate of division (growth), it is difficult to grow adult stem cells in large numbers. Scientists at the Midwest Stem Cell Therapy Center are working to understand how to grow large amounts of adult stem cells in cell culture. These scientists are also working with more “primitive” stem cells, isolated from the umbilical cord after normal births.

These stem cells are in much higher abundance than in adult tissues, can be differentiated into several different cell types, and their capacity to divide is much faster, making them good candidates for applications in treating injury or disease. An example of this is the use of these cells in treating Graft vs. Host Disease (GvHD), a condition which affects approximately 40-50% of patients receiving allogeneic transplants (i.e., transplant from another person) for blood cancers by taking advantage of a key immunosuppressive characteristic the cells possess.

The practice of stem cell therapy is nothing new: One of the oldest forms of it is the bone marrow transplant, which has been actively practiced since the late 1960s. Since then, scientists haven’t slowed downwith the advancement of adult stem cell therapy. Every day, scientists worldwide are researching new ways we can harness stem cells to develop effective new treatments for a host of diseases. In the case of a patient suffering with a blood cancer such as leukemia, a bone marrow transplant will replace their unhealthy blood cells with healthy ones. This same concept – inserting healthy cells so they may multiply and form new tissue or repair diseased tissue – can be applied to other forms of stem cell therapy.

Stem cell research continues to advance as scientists learn how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells. For example, the Midwest Stem Cell Therapy Center is collaborating to investigate the potential of a select group of umbilical cord stem cells in the treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gerhig’s disease). Developing a stem cell treatment that has been shown to be both safe and efficacious is not as simple as removing stem cells from one part of the body and putting it in another.

Working with appropriate regulatory agencies, the Midwest Stem Cell therapy Center is conducting R&D activities that will permit the Center to conduct human clinical trials on a variety of diseases over the next several years. This process – similar to the development of a new drug – will, when completed, assure patients in both clinical trials and eventually patients using the approved product, that the product is safe for use in humans and the stem cells being administered are effective in treating the injury or disease they are being used for.

When considering a cell therapy treatment, it is important to understand how your treatment will be administered and ensure that the provider is well-qualified. Stem cell clinics have popped up around the world, touting 100% success, however, in many cases these experimental treatments have yet to be evaluated by the FDA (Food & Drug Administration) or other regulatory agencies in their countries of origin. Reputable centers, including the MSCTC, are working with the FDA to develop regulations that protect the health of the patient and hold providers to high standards of treatment. Without these regulations in place, unqualified providers may endanger patients’ health. For example, as in organ transplants, patients that receive stem cell therapy are at risk of their immune system rejecting the transplant. To avoid this, immune system-suppressing drugs must be taken. Further, if stem cells are not manipulated correctly, the receiving patient can be exposed to bacteria, fungi or viruses which have been picked up during the manipulations of the stem cells, or, in some cases, receive cells that are not appropriate for use in treating a specific injury or disease.

Last modified: Mar 21, 2016

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Adult Stem Cell Therapy 101, MSCTC