This article was reviewed by Russell N. Van Gelder, MD, PhD
Neuronal cell replacement therapies remain a challenge in retinal diseases. Some fish and salamanders have the innate ability to regenerate retinal tissue after injuries and, as Russell N. Van Gelder, MD, PhD, pointed out, if researchers could harness this ability in humans, the possibilities would be great for repairing or replacing damaged tissue in a wide variety of retinal diseases. Stem cells are the key to cell replacement therapies.
Stem cells are cells that have not terminally differentiated and still have the potential to become many types of terminal cells, said Van Gelder, from the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Washington in Seattle. We all started as embryonic stem cells in the earliest phases of development.
Related: Retinal pathologies challenging to image with current technologies
Van Gelder went on to explain that there are now methods to create equivalently totipotent stem cells from individual induced progenitor stem cells derived from an individuals blood or epithelial cells.
The overarching goal is to create a cell type that needs replacement from a stem cell precursor, he said.
A major achievement in this quest for regenerative ability occurred in 2014 when an entire eye cup was grown from progenitor stem cells.
Van Gelder also described a study1 in which green fluorescent proteinlabeled retinal precursors derived from embryonic stem cells were transplanted into the subretinal space of macaques. Three months after the procedure, the researchers demonstrated that the bolus of cells persisted and had outgrowth of axons that were seen going to the optic nerve and on to the brain.
This result establishes the validity of a stem cell-based approach for doing regenerative medicine in primates, he said.
Related: Persistent retinal detachment associated with retinoblastoma
Replacement therapy hurdles As of now, however, no stem cell-based replacement treatment has received FDA approval. The problems preventing establishment of a treatment have been technical in nature and include correct cellular differentiation as well as generating adequate numbers of cells for large transplantation experiments, establishing correct cell polarity and connectivity, and ensuring the safety of these approaches regarding tumor or hamartoma formation, Van Gelder explained.
Managing inflammatory responses is a problem after cell transplantation. He cited a Japanese study2 of individual progenitor cell-derived retinal progenitor cells transplanted subretinally in monkey models.
Even with an immune HLA-matched donor, there was still a marked inflammatory response at the site of the transplantation, Van Gelder said. This and other inflammatory responses will have to be managed for cell transplantation to be successful. Related: Intravitreally injected hRPCs improve vision in retinitis pigmentosa cases
There are regulatory hurdles to clear. The FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research regulates cellular therapy products, human gene therapy products, and certain devices related to cell and gene therapy.
Van Gelder recalled the well-publicized case of transplantation of fat-derived mesenchymal cells into patients eyes, resulting in loss of vision bilaterally. He pointed out that it is important to temper patient expectations regarding these therapies and to ensure that the work is being done with the highest degree of ethical integrity.
While great progress has been made in this field, significant barriers remain to the successful adoption in the clinical setting in the coming years, Van Gelder concluded. The barriers to cell replacement should be overcome.
Read more by Lynda Charters
Russell N. Van Gelder, MD, PhD e: firstname.lastname@example.org Van Gelder has no financial interests in this subject matter. He serves on the advisory committee for the National Eye Institute Audacious Goals Initiative.
1. Chao JR, Lamba DA, Kiesert TR, et al. Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2017;6:4; doi:10.1167/tvst/6/3/4
2. Fujii S, Sugita S, Futatsugi Y, et al. A strategy for personalized treatment of iPS-retinal immune rejections assessed in cynomolgus monkey models. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(9):3077. doi:10.3390/ijms21093077
- Study Finds Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Treatment of AL Amyloidosis - DocWire News - November 22nd, 2020
- New Virtual Reality Tool, Domestic Cats are SARS-CoV-2 Carriers, Combination Therapy Advances: COVID-19 Updates - Bio-IT World - November 22nd, 2020
- SEE | Smoking worsens Covid-19 infection in the airways, new study reveals - Health24 - November 22nd, 2020
- Could Cell Therapy Be The Answer To COVID-19? - CBS Boston - November 3rd, 2020
- CA Prop 14 Explained: What To Know Before You Vote Election Day - Los Angeles, CA Patch - November 3rd, 2020
- GMP Cell Banking Services Market Predicted to Accelerate the Growth by 2019-2029 - TechnoWeekly - November 3rd, 2020
- Making Progress Against Relapsed/ Refractory DLBCL Without CAR T - OncLive - November 3rd, 2020
- Orchard Therapeutics to Host Virtual R&D Investor Event on Friday, November 13, 2020 - GlobeNewswire - November 3rd, 2020
- Editorial Article: Combating cancer: The incubation technology accelerating CAR-T cell therapy development - SelectScience - October 31st, 2020
- Richters Transformation: When a Slow-Growing Cancer Turns Aggressive - SurvivorNet - October 31st, 2020
- Detroit Pistons, Make-A-Wish put a smile on the face of Commerce Township boy - The Oakland Press - October 31st, 2020
- NexImmune Establishes Research Initiative with City of Hope to Focus on Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Acute Myeloid Leukemia - Yahoo Finance - October 31st, 2020
- HBS and Harvard's Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology Receive $25 Million Gift from The Chris and Carrie Shumway Foundation to Support... - October 23rd, 2020
- Fate Therapeutics' and Celyad's CAR therapies in oncology offer potential - pharmaceutical-technology.com - October 23rd, 2020
- World Wide Stem Cell Treatment Centers Provides Exceptional Regenerative Treatment Options To Those in Need - GlobeNewswire - October 16th, 2020
- Proposition 14: Stem cell research bonds City Times - City Times - October 16th, 2020
- BrainStorm Announces Financial Results for the Third Quarter of 2020 and Provides a Corporate Update - PRNewswire - October 16th, 2020
- How a UCSF team is giving Cronutt the sea lion a second chance with neuroscience - University of California - October 16th, 2020
- Caliber Pain is Featured as a 2020 Top NYC Patient Rated Pain Management Practice by Find Local Doctors - PR Web - October 10th, 2020
- Report of the president: Appointments and promotions | Stanford News - Stanford University News - October 10th, 2020
- UTSW Scientist: 'We Need More Women Thinking Creatively in the Lab and Pushing Science Forward' - dallasinnovates.com - October 10th, 2020
- Here's what is known about Trump's COVID-19 treatment - Science Magazine - October 4th, 2020
- Election Guide: Here's What You Need to Know About Proposition 14 - NBC Bay Area - October 4th, 2020
- ASX up 2.3%, banks and energy outperform - The Sydney Morning Herald - October 4th, 2020
- Autologous Stem Cell and Non-Stem Cell Based Therapies MARKET 2020 |INDUSTRY ANALYSIS, SIZE, SHARE, TRENDS, MARKET DEMAND, GROWTH, OPPORTUNITIES AND... - September 25th, 2020
- Finding The Achilles Heel of A Killer Parasite - Newswise - September 25th, 2020
- SHE Initiative Shines Light on Gender Disparities in Oncology Workforce - Targeted Oncology - September 25th, 2020
- Actinium Pharmaceuticals Successfully Completes First Dosing Cohort in the Phase 1 Study of Actimab-A and Venetoclax Combination Therapy in... - September 23rd, 2020
- Advances in the Treatment of Mantle Cell Lymphoma are Greatly Improving the Long-Term Outlook for Patients - Curetoday.com - September 23rd, 2020
- CytoDyn's Phase 2 Study of Leronlimab for Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 Selected for Oral Presentation at the Special isirv-AVG Virtual Conference on... - September 23rd, 2020
- Opdivo (nivolumab) Demonstrated Superior Disease-Free Survival in Patients with Resected Esophageal or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer Compared to... - September 23rd, 2020
- Coronavirus Researchers Discover How COVID-19 May Trigger Fatal Levels of Lung Inflammation - SciTechDaily - September 21st, 2020
- The Holistic Sanctuary Announces Exciting Plans to Expand Over Next 4 Years and Save More Lives - PRNewswire - September 21st, 2020
- Robert E. Windsor, MD, is being recognized by Continental Who's Who - PRNewswire - September 21st, 2020
- City of Hope Enters Licensing Agreement With Chimeric to Develop Its Pioneering Chlorotoxin CAR T Cell Therapy - Business Wire - September 21st, 2020
- Emerging immunotherapies in multiple myeloma - The BMJ - September 21st, 2020
- ADC Therapeutics Submits Biologics License Application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for Loncastuximab Tesirine for Treatment of Relapsed... - September 21st, 2020
- Oakland 24-year-old seeking multiethnic bone marrow donor - The Jewish News of Northern California - September 21st, 2020
- First-Line Treatment With Merck's KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) Doubled Five-Year Survival Rate (31.9%) Versus Chemotherapy (16.3%) in Certain Patients... - September 21st, 2020
- Coronavirus, Charity, and the Trolley Problem - Crooked - September 12th, 2020
- Targeted Approach Considered for the Treatment of Accelerated/Blast Phase MPNs - Targeted Oncology - September 1st, 2020
- Royal Biologics Announces the Acquisition of FIBRINET - PRNewswire - September 1st, 2020
- Novel Targets Outside of JAK Inhibition Inching into Myelofibrosis Treatment Landscape - Targeted Oncology - September 1st, 2020
- MaaT Pharma to Announce Clinical Data with its Lead Microbiota Biotherapeutic in Intestinal Acute GvHD at Virtual 46th Annual Meeting of the European... - August 28th, 2020
- The Inside Story Of Biotechs Barnum And His Covid Cures - Forbes - August 28th, 2020
- Mustang Bio: Slow, Steady Progress Towards Multiple Gene And CAR-T Therapy Goals - Seeking Alpha - August 25th, 2020
- Study sheds light on why retinal ganglion cells are vulnerable to glaucoma - Jill Lopez - August 19th, 2020
- Coronavirus Thursday update: UMN announces new stem cell treatment - TwinCities.com-Pioneer Press - August 15th, 2020
- Health and Fitness: Hip replacement surgery: getting back to what you love - taosnews - August 14th, 2020
- How MC Hammer And Other Performing Artists Are Sharing Their Love Of Science - Forbes - August 12th, 2020
- Chromosomal Rearrangements Associated with Chemotherapeutic Drug Resistance | McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP - JD Supra - August 8th, 2020
- Chinese Govt-Compensated Experts Plead Guilty to Thieving Investigation From an American Childrens Medi ... - 90Xtra - August 7th, 2020
- US government considers ethics of aborted tissue research - Angelus News - August 7th, 2020
- Mesa Discusses Treating Myelofibrosis and Other MPNs - Targeted Oncology - August 7th, 2020
- Startup Accelerator: Volumetric Aims to Be the Tissue Bioprinting Farm of the Future - 3DPrint.com - August 6th, 2020
- Cord blood offers hope for rare diseases and ethnic minorities - The Province - August 6th, 2020
- FDA touts advanced manufacturing to address Covid-19 shortfalls - Endpoints News - August 5th, 2020
- Cancer Research Institute Awards $30.2 Million in Grants and Fellowships to Support Basic and Clinical Research in Immunology and Cancer Immunotherapy... - August 5th, 2020
- RenovaCare Appoints Dr. Lydia M. Evans to Its Board of Directors and Increases Board Membership - GlobeNewswire - August 4th, 2020
- MediVet Biologics Rebrands as Ardent Animal Health - Benzinga - August 3rd, 2020
- Church Point Police Captain dies from COVID-19 complications: 'Go and protect the heavens, my dearest friend' - The Advocate - August 1st, 2020
- BMT survivor study finds significant breast cancer risk in young women who received total body irradiation - The Mix - July 31st, 2020
- Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Can Enhance Cognition in Healthy Older Adults - PsychCentral.com - July 29th, 2020
- The surprising recovery with stem cells of 26 COVID-19 patient in Hidalgo - Explica - July 29th, 2020
- Johnny Tabaie is proud to announce the most powerful Stem Cell Therapy - Press Release - Digital Journal - July 29th, 2020
- COVID-19 Fibroblast Based Cell Therapy Candidate Shown to Reduce Lung Scarring in Aggressive Animal Model - El Paso Inc. - July 25th, 2020
- 'Self-eating' process of stem cells may be the key to new regenerative therapies - 7thSpace Interactive - July 23rd, 2020
- R3 International Now Including Exosomes with Stem Cell Therapy Program for Autism in Mexico - PR Web - July 23rd, 2020
- CAR T-Cell Therapy Offers Potential Solution for Relapse in MCL, But With Toxicity Risk - Targeted Oncology - July 22nd, 2020
- Fine-tuning adoptive cell therapy for advanced cancers - Newswise - July 22nd, 2020
- Global Cart Cell Therapy Market To Grow At A CAGR of 29.4% With The Emergence Of Immunotherapies In Medical Treatment - GlobeNewswire - July 22nd, 2020
- In Remission for 10 Years: Long-term Data on CAR-T Therapy - Medscape - July 21st, 2020
- MRFR predicts an Upsurge in the Leukemia Therapeutics Market valuation to USD 10.7 billion by 2023 - Jewish Life News - July 21st, 2020
- Cannabis Found Effective to Treat Sickle Cell Disease Pain - The Weed Blog - July 20th, 2020
- End of Palestinian Authority coordination with Israel in response to annexation threat: decision already impacting medical referrals - occupied... - July 20th, 2020
- Addiction Treatment Market Survey Report 2020 Stats and Forecasts to 2026 - Cole of Duty - July 18th, 2020
- 13 Promising Covid Treatments Emerging from Israel - The Jewish Voice - July 15th, 2020
- New Clues from Fruit Flies about the Critical Role of Sex Hormones in Stem Cell Control - Newswise - July 15th, 2020
- Impact of Covid-19 on Preimplantation Genetic Testing Market is Projected to Grow Massively in Near Future - Cole of Duty - July 13th, 2020
- Covid-19 Update : Cord Stem Cell Banking Market 2020 Outlook and Deep Study of Top Key Players Cryo-Save AG, Lifecell, StemCyte India Therapeutics... - July 13th, 2020