Click on photo (at left) to enlarge Photo:iPS cells feature reprogrammed stem cells: Credit: Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Russian researchers have concluded that reprogramming does not create differences between reprogrammed and embryonic stem cells.
Stem cells are specialized,undifferentiated cellsthat can divide and have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. They serve as a sort of internal repair system in many tissues, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another more specialized cell type, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell. Scientists
distinguish several types ofstem cellspluripotent stem cells can potentially produce any cell in the body. No pluripotent stem cells exist in an adult body, rather they are found naturally in early embryos.
There are two ways to harvest pluripotent stem cells. The first is to extract them from the excess embryos produced duringinvitro fertilization procedures, although this practice is still ethically and technically controversial because it does destroy an embryo that could have been implanted. For this reason, researchers came up with the second way to get pluripotent stem cells reprogramming adult cells.
Reprogramming, the process of turning on genes that are active in a stem cell and turning off genes that are responsible for cell specialization was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka, who showed that the introduction of four specific proteins essential during early embryonic development could be used to convert adult cells intopluripotent cells. Yamanaka was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize along with Sir John Gurdon for the discovery that mature stem cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent.
Production of iPS cells: Isolate cells from patient; grow in a dish Treat cells with reprogramming Wait a few weeks Pluripotent stem cells Change culture conditions to stimulate cells to differentiate into a variety of cell types blood cells | gut cells | cardio muscle cells Credit: Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Thanks to their unique regenerative abilities, stem cells offer potential for treating any disease. For example, there have been cases of transplanting retinal pigment epithelium and spine cells from stem cells. Another experiment showed that stem cells were able to regenerate teeth in mice. Reprogramming holds great potential for new medical applications, since reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells (or induced pluripotent stem cells) can be made from a patients own cells instead of using pluripotent cells from embryos.
However, the extent of the similarity between induced pluripotent stem cells and humanembryonic stem cellsremains unclear. Recent studies highlighted significant differences between these two types of stem cells, although only a limited number of cell lines of different origins were analyzed.
Researchers compared induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines reprogrammed from adult cell types that were previously differentiated from embryonic stem cells. All these cells were isogenic, meaning they all had the same gene set.
Scientists analyzed the transcriptome the set of all products encoded, synthesized and used in a cell. Moreover, they elicited methylated DNA areas, because methylation plays a critical role in cell specialization. Comprehensive studies of changes in the gene activity regulation mechanism showed similarities between reprogrammed and embryonic stem cells. In addition, researchers produced a list of the activity of 275 key genes that can present reprogramming results.
Researchers studied three types of adult cells fibroblasts, retinal pigment epithelium andneural cells, all of which consist of the same gene set; but a chemical modification (e.g. methylation) combined with other changes determines which part of DNA will be used for product synthesis.
Scientists concluded that the type of adult cells that were reprogrammed and the process of reprogramming did not leave any marks. Differences between cells that did occur were thought to be the result of random factors.
We defined the best induced pluripotent stem cells line concept, says Dmitry Ischenko, MIPT Ph.D. and Institute of Physical Chemical Medicine researcher.
The minimum number of iPSC clones that would be enough for at least one to be similar to embryonic pluripotent cells with 95 percent confidence is five.
Clearly, no one is going to convert embryonic stem cells into neurons and reprogram them into induced stem cells. Such a process would be too time-consuming and expensive. This experiment simulated the reprogramming of a patientsadult cellsinto inducedpluripotent stem cellsfor further medical use, and even though the reprogramming paper, published in the journal Cell Cycle, does not currently propose a method of organ growth in vitro, it is an important step in the right direction. Both induced pluripotent cells and embryonic stem cells can help researchers understand how specialized cells develop from pluripotent cells. In the future, they may also provide an unlimited supply of replacement cells and tissues that can benefit many patients with diseases that are currently untreatable.
The study, titled, An integrative analysis of reprogramming in human isogenic system identified a clone selection criterion, concluded that reprogramming does not create differences between reprogrammed and embryonic stem cells, involved researchers from the Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Research Institute of Physical Chemical Medicine, and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT).
- Modulating the expression and activity of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 - SFARI News - November 26th, 2019
- Stem cells' role in medicine and research - The Medium - November 26th, 2019
- Stem Cell Assay Market Demand with Leading Key Players and New Investment Opportunities Emerge To Augment Segments in Sector By 2025 - The Denton... - November 26th, 2019
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) Market with Future Prospects, Key Player SWOT Analysis and Forecast To 2024 - Chronicles 360 - November 22nd, 2019
- Growing Organs in the Lab: One Step Closer to Reality - BioSpace - November 21st, 2019
- Major step taken in creating complex organs in the lab - Drug Target Review - November 21st, 2019
- Cell Therapy Aims To Improve Memory and Prevent Seizures Following Traumatic Brain Injury - Technology Networks - November 21st, 2019
- WCM-Q explores law and ethics of stem cells and AI in medicine - The Peninsula Qatar - November 18th, 2019
- Qatar- WCM-Q explores law and ethics of stem cells and AI in medicine - MENAFN.COM - November 18th, 2019
- New cell therapy improves memory and stops seizures after brain injury - Drug Target Review - November 18th, 2019
- Stem Cell Therapy Market by Treatment,Application,End Users and Geography Forecast To 2026 - Markets Gazette 24 - November 11th, 2019
- Global Stem Cell Assay Market 2019 Size, Share, Growth, Trends, Type, Application, Analysis and Forecast by 2026 - Markets Gazette 24 - November 11th, 2019
- Oct4, Considered Vital for Creating iPSCs, Actually Isnt Needed - The Scientist - November 8th, 2019
- A winding romp through advances in cell biology pushes readers to ponder the boundaries of life - Science Magazine - October 31st, 2019
- Cell Banking Outsourcing Market to 2027 - Global Analysis and Forecasts By Product Type (Cord Cell Banking, Adult Stem Cell Banking, Embryonic Stem... - October 31st, 2019
- Cell Isolation Market ||Becton, Dickinson, and Company, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Merck KGaA - Industry News Info - October 31st, 2019
- Scientists Made Mice Live 12% Longer by Hacking Their Telomeres - Futurism - October 22nd, 2019
- Scientists extend mice lifespan 12% by tweaking telomeres - Big Think - October 22nd, 2019
- Merck KGaA opens Shanghai Innovation Center and invests $ 14 million in the China Seed Fund - asume tech - October 19th, 2019
- Health policy will be the focus of the HLTH - asume tech - October 19th, 2019
- Syros sees strategic shift after the failure of the previously promising cancer drug - asume tech - October 19th, 2019
- What Theranos Whistleblowers Learn About Ethics in Health Startups - asume tech - October 19th, 2019
- Assessments of Treatment Options for Age-related Macular Degeneration - DocWire News - October 15th, 2019
- Stem Cells Market Growth Rate, Production Volume and Future Opportunities From 2019-2024 - Exponent Online - October 15th, 2019
- Catholics more motivated to donate if ethical investing is assured - Crux: Covering all things Catholic - October 10th, 2019
- Greenwood to step down as CEO of BIO after 2020 election - FierceBiotech - October 10th, 2019
- Epigenetic initiation of the TH17 differentiation program is promoted by Cxxc finger protein 1 - Science Advances - October 10th, 2019
- Interview with Tamer Mohamed of Aspect Biosystems on Advancing Tissue Therapeutics - 3DPrint.com - October 10th, 2019
- Yale researchers develop way to help brain organoids thrive - Yale News - October 9th, 2019
- Catholics more motivated to donate if ethical investing is assured - The Catholic Spirit - October 9th, 2019
- Stem Cell Market: By Key Players, Market Competitive Landscape, Trends and Forecasts to 2024 - Joliet Observer - October 9th, 2019
- Stem Cell Therapy Market to Witness a Pronounce Growth During 2020 - Gem Newz - October 9th, 2019
- On creativity, plasticity and repentance - Arutz Sheva - October 5th, 2019
- What's in the cards for this year's Nobel Prizes? - STAT - October 2nd, 2019
- Moving beyond hype: Could one-two treatment restore damaged heart muscle? - University of Wisconsin-Madison - September 28th, 2019
- Conjugated polymers optically regulate the fate of endothelial colony-forming cells - Science Advances - September 28th, 2019
- God of miniscule things - Pune Mirror - September 27th, 2019
- New study shows insight into how cells maintain their identity - Drug Target Review - September 24th, 2019
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market: Expansion Strategies Set to Generate Substantial Revenue in the near Future - Rapid News Network - September 24th, 2019
- Global Stem Cells Market 2019 Strategic Assessment by Top Players CCBC, Vcanbio, Boyalife, Beikebiotech - News Coed - September 24th, 2019
- Study Gives Clues to the Origin of Huntington's Disease, and a New Way to Find Drugs - Nature World News - September 24th, 2019
- Global Stem Cells Market 2019 Business Statistics Focus Report Growth by Top Key Players CCBC, Vcanbio, Boyalife, Beikebiotec - The Industry News... - September 24th, 2019
- Orthopedic Biomaterials Product Market Set to Witness YoY Growth by 2018-2026 - NewsStoner - September 24th, 2019
- Global Fetal Bovine Serum Market : Industry Analysis and Forecast (2017-2026) - OnYourDesks - September 24th, 2019
- Stem Cell Therapy Market to Discern Steadfast Expansion During 2020 - Technology Trend - September 24th, 2019
- Embryonic Stem Cell - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics - May 22nd, 2019
- Embryonic Stem Cell Research and Vaccines using Fetal Tissue - May 6th, 2019
- Embryonic Stem Cells - Definitions, Use, and Research - April 28th, 2019
- Will Embryonic Stem Cells Ever Cure Anything? - MIT ... - April 28th, 2019
- Creating Embryonic Stem Cells Without Embryo Destruction - April 23rd, 2019
- What Are Stem Cells? - livescience.com - April 19th, 2019
- Embryonic Stem-Cell Research Reaches Moral, Medical Dead End - April 8th, 2019
- Embryonic Stem Cell: Definition, Uses and Collection ... - April 2nd, 2019
- Advantages of Embryonic Stem Cell Research | Sciencing - March 30th, 2019
- Practical Problems with Embryonic Stem Cells - usccb.org - March 20th, 2019
- Obama Ends Stem Cell Research Ban - CBS News - March 10th, 2019
- Types of Stem Cells A Closer Look at Stem Cells - January 26th, 2019
- Embryonic Stem Cell Research - rtlofneo.com - December 19th, 2018
- The Ethics Of Embryonic Stem Cell Research Viewpoint Essay - December 11th, 2018
- Embryonic Stem Cells and Artificial Stem Cells Are ... - December 5th, 2018
- Embryonic stem cells | Cells | MCAT | Khan Academy - November 25th, 2018
- Crucial Differences Between Non-Embryonic and Embryonic Stem ... - November 23rd, 2018
- 14 Key Pros and Cons of Embryonic Stem Cell Research ... - November 5th, 2018
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Development, Volume 129 ... - September 29th, 2018
- Embryonic Stem Cell Protocols by Kursad Turksen | Waterstones - September 29th, 2018
- What Are Stem Cells? Research, Transplant, Therapy, Definition - July 17th, 2018
- Embryonic Stem Cell Research Pros and Cons | HRFnd - June 19th, 2018
- Stem Cell Research: Is It in Danger? - September 29th, 2017
- Truth About Embryonic Stem Cells | Stem Cell Orthopedic ... - September 29th, 2017
- Embryonic Stem Cell Research Still Hasn't Cured a Single ... - September 25th, 2017
- Doubts raised about CRISPR gene-editing study in human embryos - Nature.com - September 2nd, 2017
- Study shows human stem cells restore mobility in Parkinson's monkeys - Borneo Bulletin Online - September 2nd, 2017
- Sofa Vergara's ex might finally be out of luck in his battle for custody ... - Slate Magazine (blog) - September 1st, 2017
- Young cardiac cells rejuvenate heart in animal study - The San Diego Union-Tribune - August 29th, 2017
- embryonic stem cells : NPR - August 25th, 2017
- Mouse model of human immune system inadequate for stem cell studies - Stanford Medical Center Report - August 25th, 2017
- Injections of Vitamin C Could Help Fight Blood Cancer - Wall Street Pit - August 25th, 2017
- Letter: Response to 'Disappointed by Republicans' - The Herald-News - August 20th, 2017
- What are Embryonic Stem Cells? - amaskincare.com - August 19th, 2017
- Woman Will Use Stem Cells From Her Baby's Umbilical Cord To ... - LifeNews.com - August 19th, 2017