June 27, 2017 Just a few days old embryonic cell clusters: with functional Pramel7 (left), without the protein (right) the development of the stem cells remains stuck and the embyos die. Credit: Paolo Cinelli, USZ
Researchers from the University of Zurich and the University Hospital Zurich have discovered the protein that enables natural embryonic stem cells to form all body cells. In the case of embryonic stem cells maintained in cell cultures, this allrounder potential is limited. Scientists want to use this knowledge to treat large bone fractures with stem cells.
Stem cells are considered biological allrounders because they have the potential to develop into the various body cell types. For the majority of stem cells, however, this designation is too far-reaching. Adult stem cells, for example, can replace cells in their own tissue in case of injury, but a fat stem cell will never generate a nerve or liver cell. Scientists therefore distinguish between multipotent adult stem cells and the actual allrounders - the pluripotent embryonic stem cells.
Epigenetic marks determine potential for development
Differences exist even among the true allrounders, however. Embryonic stem cells that grow in laboratory cell cultures are in a different state than the pluripotent cells found inside the embryos in the first days of development. In a study in the journal Nature Cell Biology, researchers led by Paolo Cinelli of the University Hospital Zurich and Raffaella Santoro of the University of Zurich have now demonstrated the mechanism by which natural allrounders differ from embryonic stem cells in cultures.
At the center of their discovery is a protein called Pramel7 (for "preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma"-like 7) found in the cells of embryonic cell clusters that are just a few days old. This protein guarantees that the genetic material is freed from epigenetic marks consisting of chemical DNA tags in the form of methyl groups. "The more methyl groups are removed, the more open the Book of Life becomes," Cinelli says. Since any cell of the human body can develop from an embryonic stem cell, all genes have to be freely accessible at the beginning. The more a cell develops or differentiates, the stronger its genetic material is methylated and "sealed closed" again. In a bone cell, for example, only those genes are active that the cell requires for its function, the biochemist explains.
Protein is responsible for perfect pluripotency
Despite its short action period of just a few days, Pramel7 seems to play a vital role: When the researchers headed up by Cinelli and Santoro switched off the gene for this protein using genetic tricks, development remained stuck in the embryonic cell cluster stage. In the cultivated stem cells, on the other hand, Pramel7 is rarely found. This circumstance could also explain why the genetic material of these cells contains more methyl groups than that of natural embryonic cells - the perfect allrounders, as Cinelli calls them.
Using the stem cell function to regenerate bone tissue
His interest in stem cells lies in the hope of one day being able to help people with complex bone fractures. "Bones are great at regenerating and they are the only tissue that does not build scars," Paolo Cinelli says. The bone stumps must be touching, however, in order to grow together. When a bone breaks in multiple places and even through the skin, for example, in a motorcycle accident, the sections of bone in between are often no longer usable. For such cases, a bone replacement is required. His team is studying carrier materials that they want to populate with the body's own stem cells in the future. "For this reason, we have to know how stem cells work," Cinelli adds.
Explore further: New tools to study the origin of embryonic stem cells
More information: Urs Graf et al, Pramel7 mediates ground-state pluripotency through proteasomalepigenetic combined pathways, Nature Cell Biology (2017). DOI: 10.1038/ncb3554
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have identified cell surface markers specific for the very earliest stem cells in the human embryo. These cells are thought to possess great potential for replacing damaged tissue but ...
An International Reserach Team coordinated by Igb-Cnr has discovered a key role of vitamins and amino acids in pluripotent stem cells. The research is published in Stem Cell Reports, and may provide new insights in cancer ...
Scientists have discovered the gene essential for chemically reprogramming human amniotic stem cells into a more versatile state similar to embryonic stem cells, in research led by UCL and Heinrich Heine University.
Pre-eclampsia is a disease that affects 5 to 8 percent of pregnancies in America. Complications from this disease can lead to emergency cesarean sections early in pregnancies to save the lives of the infants and mothers. ...
Oxygen in the air is well known to cause damaging rust on cars through a process known as oxidation. Similarly, a research group at Lund University in Sweden, has now identified that certain cells during embryonic development ...
Human stem cells that are capable of becoming any other kind of cell in the body have previously only been acquired and cultivated with difficulty. Scientists at the Max Delbrck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) in the ...
Scientists have developed a new biological tool for examining molecules - the building blocks of life - which they say could provide new insights and other benefits such as reducing the numbers of animals used in experiments.
When insects skip the light fandango their romantic foreplay often involves some pretty crazy things like hypnotic dance moves and flashy colors. In some species it ends with a complex ejaculate package that does more than ...
A study of yeast reveals new mechanism that allows cells to adapt to environmental changes more rapidly by accelerating genetic changes around genes that boost fitness, publishing 27 June in the open access journal PLOS Biology, ...
For us humans, it goes without saying that we reward others as an indication of the gratitude we feel towards them. Scientists from the Max Planck Institutes for Evolutionary Anthropology and for Mathematics in the Sciences ...
Researchers in China have developed a genetic engineering approach capable of delivering many genes at once and used it to make rice endospermseed tissue that provides nutrients to the developing plant embryoproduce ...
In the fight against the viruses that invade everyday life, seeing and understanding the battleground is essential. Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have, for the first time, imaged molecular structures ...
Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more
Read more from the original source:
What makes stem cells into perfect allrounders - Phys.org - Phys.Org
- Stem Cell Therapy Market by Treatment,Application,End Users and Geography Forecast To 2026 - Markets Gazette 24 - November 11th, 2019
- Global Stem Cell Assay Market 2019 Size, Share, Growth, Trends, Type, Application, Analysis and Forecast by 2026 - Markets Gazette 24 - November 11th, 2019
- Oct4, Considered Vital for Creating iPSCs, Actually Isnt Needed - The Scientist - November 8th, 2019
- A winding romp through advances in cell biology pushes readers to ponder the boundaries of life - Science Magazine - October 31st, 2019
- Cell Banking Outsourcing Market to 2027 - Global Analysis and Forecasts By Product Type (Cord Cell Banking, Adult Stem Cell Banking, Embryonic Stem... - October 31st, 2019
- Cell Isolation Market ||Becton, Dickinson, and Company, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Merck KGaA - Industry News Info - October 31st, 2019
- Scientists Made Mice Live 12% Longer by Hacking Their Telomeres - Futurism - October 22nd, 2019
- Scientists extend mice lifespan 12% by tweaking telomeres - Big Think - October 22nd, 2019
- Merck KGaA opens Shanghai Innovation Center and invests $ 14 million in the China Seed Fund - asume tech - October 19th, 2019
- Health policy will be the focus of the HLTH - asume tech - October 19th, 2019
- Syros sees strategic shift after the failure of the previously promising cancer drug - asume tech - October 19th, 2019
- What Theranos Whistleblowers Learn About Ethics in Health Startups - asume tech - October 19th, 2019
- Assessments of Treatment Options for Age-related Macular Degeneration - DocWire News - October 15th, 2019
- Stem Cells Market Growth Rate, Production Volume and Future Opportunities From 2019-2024 - Exponent Online - October 15th, 2019
- Catholics more motivated to donate if ethical investing is assured - Crux: Covering all things Catholic - October 10th, 2019
- Greenwood to step down as CEO of BIO after 2020 election - FierceBiotech - October 10th, 2019
- Epigenetic initiation of the TH17 differentiation program is promoted by Cxxc finger protein 1 - Science Advances - October 10th, 2019
- Interview with Tamer Mohamed of Aspect Biosystems on Advancing Tissue Therapeutics - 3DPrint.com - October 10th, 2019
- Yale researchers develop way to help brain organoids thrive - Yale News - October 9th, 2019
- Catholics more motivated to donate if ethical investing is assured - The Catholic Spirit - October 9th, 2019
- Stem Cell Market: By Key Players, Market Competitive Landscape, Trends and Forecasts to 2024 - Joliet Observer - October 9th, 2019
- Stem Cell Therapy Market to Witness a Pronounce Growth During 2020 - Gem Newz - October 9th, 2019
- On creativity, plasticity and repentance - Arutz Sheva - October 5th, 2019
- What's in the cards for this year's Nobel Prizes? - STAT - October 2nd, 2019
- Moving beyond hype: Could one-two treatment restore damaged heart muscle? - University of Wisconsin-Madison - September 28th, 2019
- Conjugated polymers optically regulate the fate of endothelial colony-forming cells - Science Advances - September 28th, 2019
- God of miniscule things - Pune Mirror - September 27th, 2019
- New study shows insight into how cells maintain their identity - Drug Target Review - September 24th, 2019
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells Market: Expansion Strategies Set to Generate Substantial Revenue in the near Future - Rapid News Network - September 24th, 2019
- Global Stem Cells Market 2019 Strategic Assessment by Top Players CCBC, Vcanbio, Boyalife, Beikebiotech - News Coed - September 24th, 2019
- Study Gives Clues to the Origin of Huntington's Disease, and a New Way to Find Drugs - Nature World News - September 24th, 2019
- Global Stem Cells Market 2019 Business Statistics Focus Report Growth by Top Key Players CCBC, Vcanbio, Boyalife, Beikebiotec - The Industry News... - September 24th, 2019
- Orthopedic Biomaterials Product Market Set to Witness YoY Growth by 2018-2026 - NewsStoner - September 24th, 2019
- Global Fetal Bovine Serum Market : Industry Analysis and Forecast (2017-2026) - OnYourDesks - September 24th, 2019
- Stem Cell Therapy Market to Discern Steadfast Expansion During 2020 - Technology Trend - September 24th, 2019
- Embryonic Stem Cell - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics - May 22nd, 2019
- Embryonic Stem Cell Research and Vaccines using Fetal Tissue - May 6th, 2019
- Embryonic Stem Cells - Definitions, Use, and Research - April 28th, 2019
- Will Embryonic Stem Cells Ever Cure Anything? - MIT ... - April 28th, 2019
- Creating Embryonic Stem Cells Without Embryo Destruction - April 23rd, 2019
- What Are Stem Cells? - livescience.com - April 19th, 2019
- Embryonic Stem-Cell Research Reaches Moral, Medical Dead End - April 8th, 2019
- Embryonic Stem Cell: Definition, Uses and Collection ... - April 2nd, 2019
- Advantages of Embryonic Stem Cell Research | Sciencing - March 30th, 2019
- Practical Problems with Embryonic Stem Cells - usccb.org - March 20th, 2019
- Obama Ends Stem Cell Research Ban - CBS News - March 10th, 2019
- Types of Stem Cells A Closer Look at Stem Cells - January 26th, 2019
- Embryonic Stem Cell Research - rtlofneo.com - December 19th, 2018
- The Ethics Of Embryonic Stem Cell Research Viewpoint Essay - December 11th, 2018
- Embryonic Stem Cells and Artificial Stem Cells Are ... - December 5th, 2018
- Embryonic stem cells | Cells | MCAT | Khan Academy - November 25th, 2018
- Crucial Differences Between Non-Embryonic and Embryonic Stem ... - November 23rd, 2018
- 14 Key Pros and Cons of Embryonic Stem Cell Research ... - November 5th, 2018
- Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Development, Volume 129 ... - September 29th, 2018
- Reprogrammed stem cells identical to embryonic stem cells - September 29th, 2018
- Embryonic Stem Cell Protocols by Kursad Turksen | Waterstones - September 29th, 2018
- What Are Stem Cells? Research, Transplant, Therapy, Definition - July 17th, 2018
- Embryonic Stem Cell Research Pros and Cons | HRFnd - June 19th, 2018
- Stem Cell Research: Is It in Danger? - September 29th, 2017
- Truth About Embryonic Stem Cells | Stem Cell Orthopedic ... - September 29th, 2017
- Embryonic Stem Cell Research Still Hasn't Cured a Single ... - September 25th, 2017
- Doubts raised about CRISPR gene-editing study in human embryos - Nature.com - September 2nd, 2017
- Study shows human stem cells restore mobility in Parkinson's monkeys - Borneo Bulletin Online - September 2nd, 2017
- Sofa Vergara's ex might finally be out of luck in his battle for custody ... - Slate Magazine (blog) - September 1st, 2017
- Young cardiac cells rejuvenate heart in animal study - The San Diego Union-Tribune - August 29th, 2017
- embryonic stem cells : NPR - August 25th, 2017
- Mouse model of human immune system inadequate for stem cell studies - Stanford Medical Center Report - August 25th, 2017
- Injections of Vitamin C Could Help Fight Blood Cancer - Wall Street Pit - August 25th, 2017
- Letter: Response to 'Disappointed by Republicans' - The Herald-News - August 20th, 2017
- What are Embryonic Stem Cells? - amaskincare.com - August 19th, 2017
- Woman Will Use Stem Cells From Her Baby's Umbilical Cord To ... - LifeNews.com - August 19th, 2017
- Stem cells mimic sphere where embryos grow - Futurity: Research News - August 19th, 2017
- Vitamin C helps genes to kill off cells that would cause cancer - New Scientist - August 19th, 2017
- A way to stabilize haploidy in animal cells - Phys.Org - August 16th, 2017
- First implants derived from stem cells to 'cure' type 1 diabetes - New Scientist - August 12th, 2017
- Fast facts about cloning - WPSD Local 6: Your news, weather, and sports authority - WPSD Local 6 - August 12th, 2017
- Stem Cell Implant Is Being Trialled To Cure" Type 1 Diabetes - IFLScience - August 12th, 2017
- Lego-Like Brain Balls Could Build a Living Replica of Your Noggin - WIRED - August 12th, 2017
- Amniotic sac in a dish: Stem cells form structures that may aid of infertility research - Phys.Org - August 8th, 2017
- BioTech Marketing and market opportunity for Stem Cells - Checkbiotech.org (press release) - August 8th, 2017